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The duality of-smell phenomenon

Our sense of smell is based on two delivery pathways, orthonasal and retronasal; that makes it the only “dual sense modality” we possess, one that provides information about things both external and internal to the body.

When it comes to evaluating as well as marketing wines, the duality of smell has important consequences for perception. Not surprisingly, there are differences in the odors resulting from orthonasal and retronasal olfaction, even though they are processed in the same way.

While both pathways deliver volatile aroma compounds to the same receptors, the quality of those odors and our thresholds for detecting them differ due largely to the airflow patterns that the molecules follow, the temperature differences of the air traveling through each pathway, and the different enzymes found in our saliva and the membranes of our mouth and throat.

 The Nasothek is Copenhagen, Denmark takes its name from the Latin for “nose” and Greek for “container.”

Researchers at Ohio State University have determined that food odors elicit similar responses through orthonasal and retronasal olfaction—but that’s not the case with non-food odors such as floral aromas. Participants in the study were asked to match an identified scent, such as rose, with one of four unknown scents using two methods: by drinking a solution to activate the retronasal sense of smell through the internal nares, or nostrils, at the back of the throat and by sniffing from a vial to activate the orthonasal sense of smell through the nose.

Participants were presented with the reference aromas of honeysuckle, lavender, rose, and jasmine labeled in three different ways: with their common names, with their Latin or species name, and with a letter. When the routes of delivery differed, for example by smelling one sample and tasting another, participants made more mistakes, which were attributed to the differences in those delivery systems affecting their ability to match the scents.

Regardless of how the samples were labeled, the best results were achieved when aromas were introduced in the same way, either through sniffing them in a vial or drinking them in a solution.

However, researchers were surprised to find that the less participants knew about the reference aromas—that is, when they were labeled with their species name or a letter—the better their chances of correctly identifying a match when using different routes of delivery. The unexpected finding suggests that aroma detection (and thus perception) involves learning, memory, and cognitive strategy.

Researchers point to cues provided by familiar labels as the cause of cognitive
interference from the brain’s language centers, which has a negative impact on our ability to identify aromas: Even when the same aromas are activating the same receptors, albeit through different pathways, we still can’t make a match.

That discovery and its relation to the duality of-smell phenomenon is further illustrated by a small study conducted by Cornell University researchers in tasting rooms in New York’s Finger Lakes region, which showed that both the volume and value of wine sales were higher when tasting sheets omitted sensory descriptors like “dry and full-bodied, with decadent flavors of pink grapefruit, honeysuckle and lemon meringue” in favor of details on the climate in which the grapes were grown and the foods the wines in question paired with.

Their conclusion: Sensory descriptors are likely intimidating to inexperienced
consumers, who get frustrated when they can’t identify the aromas and flavors used to describe the wine. The consumers studied had a better tasting experience and purchased more wine when they had less information about the sensory attributes of the wines they were tasting.

In short, the challenges created by the duality-of-smell phenomenon in combination with cognitive dissonance are at least partly responsible for the confusion consumers experience when they have difficulty identifying non-food aromas ascribed to wines.

We’re losing Rotundone’s peppery notes

As the climate strains, wine complexity wanes

Wine professionals use the markers that differentiate grape varieties as
guideposts when assessing quality and style and/or when blind tasting. Wine enthusiasts relish the complexity of their favorite expressions, a factor that contributes significantly to their enjoyment.

Wine is one of the foods richest in volatile aroma compounds, linked to as
many as 1,000 of them. That said, only 80 or so—including the monoterpenols responsible for the floral notes in Muscat (among other varieties) or the thiols that impart passion fruit and grapefruit aromas
to Sauvignon Blanc—have been widely studied.

“Now the days of comparing a

glass of Northern Rhône Syrah to

a strip of peppered bacon appear

to be coming to an end.”

In fact, the molecule responsible for the pronounced peppery notes found
in several French grapes—including Syrah from the Northern Rhône; Gamay from Beaujolais; and Duras, Fer, Négrette, and Prunelard, grown in the southwest—was only recently discovered.

Until 2008, knowledge of the aromatic compounds that account for the varietal character of red wines, especially free compounds directly extracted from grapes,was limited to methoxypyrazines, the culprit responsible for undesirable green notes in Bordeaux varieties. The discovery in an Australian Syrah of rotundone, a sesquiterpene responsible for those peppery notes, shed new light on its sensory significance.

Rotundone had been hiding in plain sight; it had remained undetected by
researchers in not only wine but food products such as Piper nigrum, or black
pepper, which has more than 50 volatile compounds. These researchers speculate that several factors complicated its detection, including the fact that 1) the molecule appears late during sensory evaluation sessions, when judges no longer expect to encounter any molecules of interest and therefore may be less attentive, and 2) there is a specific anosmia for it, with 30% of tasters unable to detect it.

But now the days of comparing a glass of Northern Rhône Syrah to a strip of
peppered bacon appear to be coming to an end: Researchers at the École
d’Ingénieurs de PURPAN in Toulouse, France, anticipate that the peppery notes attributed to rotundone in Syrah grown in warmer climates will be lost due to increased temperatures and less precipitation during the ripening stage.

Unlike other aroma compounds in grapes that are derived from odorless precursors released during production or formed during fermentation, rotundone is directly extracted from berry skins during winemaking. In the context of climate change, strategies are being proposed in both the vineyard and the winery to help produce wines with consistent rotundone levels.

In addition to developing drought-tolerant rootstocks, the Toulouse researchers have identified specific clones that produce higher concentrations of rotundone, including Duras clones 554 and 654; they are also focusing on later-ripening clones of varieties like Tardiff, because later picking dates appear to be another significant factor in maximizing rotundone in wines (as do extended macerations in the cellar).

If we lose the peppery notes that we know and love in Syrah and Gamay wines, producers will have the option of recreating those characteristics by blending with wines made from varieties such as Duras and Tardiff.

Loss of complexity is just one indicator of the impact that climate change is having on the characteristics that we associate with benchmark wine styles. And this unfortunate scenario isn’t confined to the warmest growing regions of France. It’s hard to imagine tasting Grüner Veltliner without its characteristic notes of white pepper or losing the fragrant green peppercorn
that is found in Cabernet Franc. Without them, differentiating between
grape varieties will become increasingly more difficult, and consumers will be
forced to look elsewhere for their favorite complex flavors.

Italian Wine Podcast: Get US Market Ready talks with Deborah Parker Wong

Get US Market Ready host Steve Raye talks with Slow Wine Guide USA National Editor Deborah Parker Wong about her journey and work as an educator, journalist and much more. The 2021 Slow Wine Guide USA is available on

Italian Wine Podcast

Alvarinho’s Authentic Terroir

Despite its close proximity to the Atlantic Ocean and the Minho River, the Monção e Melgaço subregion of Portugal’s Vinho Verde DOC has a Mediterranean climate, with hot summers and mild, rainy winters. The horseshoe-shaped Gerês Mountains, home to Portugal’s oldest and largest national park, encompass the area in a natural amphitheater that opens northeast to the Minho River and the border with Spain.

The mesoclimate created by those mountains, which reach elevations of up to 1,550 meters, is utterly unique within the Vinho Verde region and is a defining factor in the character of the Alvarinho wines produced there. The peaks protect the vineyards from the cool maritime influence of the Atlantic coast and create a rain shadow that delivers 1,178 millimeters of rain during the winter months—less than half of the annual precipitation received by other Vinho Verde sub regions.

Average temperatures during the growing season in Monção e Melgaço are also warmer, resulting in an ideal climate for producing a range of styles of Alvarinho. The area’s soils—a combination of shallow, weathered granite and coarse sand from colluvial runoff and aeolian erosion—don’t have much water-holding capacity and are naturally high in acidity, with low levels of phosphorus. Winegrowers use terraces and natural fertilizers to enrich the soil, but the low vigor ultimately works in their favor.

The Minho River valley in the region of Monção e Melgaço

Above 500 meters, the terrain is notoriously rugged and inhospitable,
so vineyards around the towns of Monção and Melgaço are typically
sited below 300 meters—Soalheiro, for instance, produces its aptly named
Alvarinho Granit from sites above 200 meters. Alvarinho, which originated
in the Minho River valley, dominates the plantings here, producing wines
with extraordinary minerality and physiologically ripe fruit character but
without searing levels of acidity.

The range of styles includes both light, fresh wines like the Adega de Monção
2020 Deu la Deu—offering lime and tangerine flavors and a suggestion of
pétillance—and richer expressions that show marked intensity and purity of
fruit as well as minerality, such as the Valados de Melgaço 2019 Alvarinho
Reserva laden with peach, apricot, and just-ripe tropical fruits; these can age gracefully for several years.

Winemaking techniques also play a role in the range of styles characteristic of the region. While most fermentation takes place in stainless-steel tanks, winemakers do allow higher-temperature fermentations that result in less overtly floral wines and greater focus of flavors on the palate.

The reserve wines typically undergo bâtonnage and aging on the fine lees to help build body and add complexity. Alvarinho produced in its native terroir is incomparable to expressions of the variety grown elsewhere. But it may ultimately prove to be on a trajectory similar to that of Pinot Gris, which is renowned for producing light, delicately floral wines in Italy’s Collio region and wines of great mineral intensity and fruit purity in Alsace. Time will tell.

Shochu: the spirit of the Summer Games

When Japan hosted its first Summer Olympic Games in 1964, saké was served freely on opening day as part of a festive ceremony known as kagami biraki. This ancient tradition, which dates to the 17th century, is an integral part of Japanese culture, taking place at celebrations throughout the year.

Japan has since played host to two Winter Olympics—1972 in Sapporo and 1998 in Nagano, where saké and shochu were the drinks of choice—but it will make history this year as the only Asian nation to host a second Summer Games. Because Americans won’t be able to attend in person, they’ll be seeking ways to experience the tournament from afar—and, surely, raising their own toasts to the occasion.

Official logo of the 2020 Summer Games

In fact, they already are. According to a market research report from Kalsec, a leading producer of natural spice and herb flavor extracts, pandemic travel restrictions are fueling dining and drinking trends that emphasize cultural authenticity.

Interest in Japanese cuisine in particular is growing; take, for example, the newfound popularity of “sandos,” or katsu sandwiches, and sudachi, a Japanese citrus fruit from Tokushima Prefecture that’s being touted as the new yuzu.

As these foods grow in recognition, saké and shochu are also gaining traction
in the U.S. market—and for consumers who are increasingly drawn to the
stories behind the products they purchase, iichiko, Japan’s most popular shochu brand, has what they’re looking for in spades.

The Spirit of Umami

While saké is a fixture at all of life’s important moments in Japan, the similarly lengthy history and traditions of shochu have made it the nation’s distilled spirit of choice—and iichiko its most notable producer.

With a name that translates as “it’s good,” iichiko conveys a level of complexity that few white spirits can rival thanks to its barley base and koji backbone. It’s distilled on the island of Kyushu in O¯ita Prefecture, but because the area lacks the cold winters that were once so essential to fermentation, shochu became the key alcoholic beverage, as warmer weather wasn’t a factor in the distillation process.

The shochu capital of Japan, Kagoshima

That said, the two-row barley used to produce iichiko is treated very similarly to saké rice in that it’s polished, steeped, and steamed in soft, iron-free water, preparing it for the addition of barley koji. The koji initiates the fermentation process, releasing the rich flavor of the grain and creating citric acid, which protects the shochu from bacteria that causes spoilage.

To produce its two expressions, iichiko uses a mix of low- and high-pressure distillation techniques at different temperatures, resulting in raw shochus with different characteristics. These are then blended to create Silhouette—which, at 25% ABV, offers notes of melon, grapefruit, and herbs with a smooth, elegant flavor profile and nutty finish—and Saiten, a 43% ABV shochu that shows aromas of honeydew melon, white grape, pickled watermelon rind, Kabosu citrus, and umami notes of soy and barley as well as flavors of jasmine tea, white peach, minerals, and earth.

Saiten was developed specifically for mixology, while Silhouette is frequently
mixed with oolong or matcha tea, showcased in a classic Highball with soda or fruit juice, or served on the rocks. Together, they reinforce shochu’s undeniable versatility.

As an ambassador of Japanese culture, iichiko has a unique story to tell. From its heritage grains and traditional production methods to its affinity for pairing with umami-rich foods, iichiko is a metaphor for Japan itself: a place where the enduring past sets the stage for the future.

Unraveling Geologic Metaphors

The discovery of more naturally-occurring compounds found both in soil and in wine prompts winegrowers to abandon their geologic metaphor and take credit for winemaking choices that reflect their terroir.

In addition to water and alcohol, wine is composed of fewer than 4% of minor components, many of which are only present in miniscule amounts. The dozen or so minerals that are present as nutrient elements—typically metallic cations (positively charged ions)—such as potassium, phosphorus, and calcium are only distantly related to geological minerals found in vineyards, which are complex crystalline compounds.

However, research is showing that some of the same volatile compounds
found in rocks can also be found in wines described as “mineral.” (I covered the best known of them, petrichor, in my October/November 2019 column.)

Although there is no single term for the source of mineral expression in wine,
one thing wine professionals and consumers do agree upon is the use of certain words to describe such characteristics.

Careful study of the lexeme for the word “mineral” has produced a list of relevant descriptors, including: flint, matchstick, smoke, kerosene, petrol, rubber eraser, slate, granite, limestone, earthy, tar, charcoal, graphite, rock dust, wet stones, salty, metallic, steely, and ferrous.

One of the most romantic yet misguided geologic metaphors employed by
winemakers attributes mineral expression to the soil vines grow in. For example, flint and pebbles contain polysulfides and, more specifically, hydrogen disulfane, compounds that give them odors of flint, gunpowder, and matchstick.

Photo credit: Benoit Roumet

Despite the widespread use of the term “flinty” to describe them, the odors of these sulfanes had previously never been studied in the context of food products—largely because the sulfanes are highly volatile and unstable, making them challenging to work with—until researchers who were studying toilet malodors realized they were on to something.

Flint is formed from sediments rich in hydrogen compounds as a result of
the bacterial reduction of sulfates in an anaerobic environment. When it’s scraped or struck against another rock, the presence of iron from clay minerals releases those compounds as iron sulfides and other sulfur forms.

This is the source of the easily detectable gunflint odor that the winegrowers of Sancerre metaphorically assign to the aromas found in the wine that comes from the area’s silex soils. Flinty aromas in Sauvignon Blanc are attributed to benzene methanethiol (or reduction), but hydrogen disulfane can also play a role.

The abovementioned researchers confirmed the presence of hydrogen disulfane in two dry white Chasselas wines that were described by wine professionals as the most mineral from among 80 samples.

When tested, in addition to containing this polysulfide, these wines were found to have higher concentrations of malic and lactic acid. While hydrogen sulfide is present to some degree in all wines, the compound hydrogen disulfane is more abundant in wines defined as mineral.

Given its presence in both them and the soils they hailed from, the intrepid winegrowers of Sancerre can now revise their metaphor and take credit for winemaking choices that reflect their terroir

Sustainability: A Shared Message Delivered by a Chorus of Voices

Bringing together like-minded stakeholders for its second global conference addressing sustainability, Sustainable Wine UK will host the Future of Wine Americas Conference, 1 – 3 June. This no-cost, online conference will connect peers for information sharing, debate and best practices aimed at tackling pressing topics such as water conservation, the benefits of organic versus low-intervention wine, sustainable management of pest and disease outbreaks, and the role of social fairness in the green movement.

Sustainability is a vast and complex topic that many winegrowers and winemakers need help navigating. “That cannot be done in isolation, as we must confront myriad issues to reach sustainability objectives,” said Toby Webb, co-founder of Sustainable Wine. “With the COP26 negotiations coming up in November and the USA coming back in to the Paris Agreement, it’s clear policymakers, consumers and the wine industry itself want to tackle climate change,” he noted.

With its comprehensive approach to the three components of sustainability (people, planet, profit) and insightful looks at real issues affecting the wine industry, the Future of Wine Americas Conference mirrors the priorities of the growing Slow Wine USA movement. And indeed, a significant contingent of Slow Wine guide participating wineries are among the 60 speakers Webb has brought together for the one-day workshop and two-day conference.  

Matthiasson Wines plans to have two staff speak at the virtual conference. “Our winery was founded on the same principles as Slow Food and Slow Wine, including getting back to the basics of growing great food sustainably,” said Owner and Winemaker Steve Matthiasson. The vineyard is certified organic and uses regenerative practices, including no-till agriculture, cover crops and compost to build soil health, and raising several crops to increase biodiversity.

In a session on polyculture, Vineyard Manager Caleb Mosley plans to discuss how the vineyard’s fruit trees attract beneficial animals and insects and supply the raw material for jams that are made available to wine club members, farmers market shoppers and local restaurants.

Matthiasson will touch on the hot topic of labor and how the company is able to keep its 15 employees year-round. He sees such tremendous benefit from this that he can’t imagine running his business any other way. “We have a reciprocal relationship—we take good care of them and they take good care of the vines,” he said. “That’s one of the things that makes our work really fun, is that we’re finding that we can take good care of our people and take care of the land and make really good wine.”

Sustainability is a complex topic, and there isn’t a “one size fits all” approach. At the Future of Wine Americas Conference, Laura Diaz Munoz with Ehlers Estate will participate on a panel to discuss where organic practices are the most impactful: in the vineyard or in the cellar. “It depends on the size of the winery and how impactful the winemaking practices in the cellar are,” she emphasized. Her winery is relatively small, and she’s found that her biggest impact comes from activities such as minimizing water usage in the cellar and making packaging more lightweight so that shippers don’t need to use as much fuel to deliver it.

Some of this is also place-based; since she lives in drought-stricken California, limiting water use is essential, both from an ecological and cost perspective. And that other aspect of sustainability—the need for economic sustainability—isn’t lost on her. “At the end of the day, our business needs to be sustainable in that regard,” she said. The greenest business can’t have any impact on the planet if it ceases to exist.

Peter Work with Ampelos Cellars will speak on the leadership panel and share his many years of experience with sustainable farming practices. He has worked to develop a comprehensive set of best practices that looks at all aspects of farming. “It’s not just soil and plant focused, but it also including other key areas like energy, employees, water, social equity and financial sustainability,” he said. “It is an all-encompassing way to approach farming where the grape grower can use these best-practices in an ongoing way to improve the operation.”

Work will emphasize that while winegrowers need to implement and improve their own sustainable practices, they also have an important role in educating everyone in the supply chain about the importance of sustainable farming. “We need to make sure that this is understood by the winemakers, distributers, sommeliers and wine buyers, media and especially the end consumers,” he said. “We need to not just create awareness around our practices but to create a demand from the consumer and trade side.”

Beth Novak Milliken, president and CEO of Spottswoode Vineyard and a long-time leader in the sustainability movement, will also speak during the leadership panel. She hopes the winery’s many sustainable practices will serve as an inspiration for others. In addition to being certified organic and biodynamic, the brand is pursing zero waste certification. It is powered by solar energy and contributes generously to nonprofits such as 1% for the Planet, the CarbonFree Fund and the Lane Trust of Napa County.

“Not only are we deep environmentalists, but the reality is that our ability to continue to grow grapes of the very highest quality (and) produce exceptional wines relies upon a relatively stable climate—which we do not now have,” she said. “And so we must act now. We must all care and work collectively as people, as a nation and as a global community.”

Slow Wine USA’s Senior Editor Pamela Strayer will lend her expertise to a panel titled “How can retailers turn sustainability into an opportunity for the wine industry in the Americas?” while National Editor Deborah Parker Wong will moderate panels addressing social fairness and migrant labor issues. Also participating are Diana Seysses of Domaine Dujac and Snowden Vineyards, David Gates of Ridge Vineyards, Neil Collins from Tablas Creek and John Williams from Frog’s Leap Winery all of which are listed in the 2021 Slow Wine Guide USA.

Registration for the Future of Wine Americas Conference is free and open to all at

A Milestone for Schug Carneros Estate

The legacy of the man who made Insignia, the iconic Bordeaux-style red blend created in 1974 that propelled Joseph Phelps to fame, is defined by Pinot Noir.

Walter Schug departed this world in 2015 but his passion for Pinot Noir lives on at Schug Carneros Estate which is celebrating 41 years of devotion to the variety. Axel and Claudia Schug, third generation winegrowers, were joined by chef Kristine Schug and winemaker Johannes Scheid as they presented a retrospective tasting that spanned the past, present and future of the Carneros estate winery.

Schug Winemaker Johannes Scheid (l), Claudia, Kristine and Axel Schug.

The tasting began with the wine that started it all, the Schug Cellars 1980 Heinemann Vineyard Pinot Noir, Napa Valley, which was the first wine made by Walter Schug for his own label.

Schug had Pinot Noir in his blood. He grew up in the family winery – Staatsweingut Assmannshausen – founded by his father, a Spatburgunder specialist who was surrounded by Riesling in the heart of Germany’s Mosel region.

The inaugural Schug vintage was described by Jonathan Cristaldi, editor ar large for SOMM Journal, as “…lively and energetic, showing no signs of slowing down. Packed with brown spices, earth, and black truffle notes it is a marvel at 41 years old.” He went on to characterize the following wines, “The ‘83 Heinemann vineyard was surprisingly robust and tannic, the ‘86 literally opulent and the ‘92 Cab a throwback to those California yesteryear reds that make us fall in love all over again with that unmistakable California “style” which may or may not be lost for good.”

The original Schug label

The complete list of wines tasted included:

2020 Rose of Pinot Noir, Sonoma Coast

2017 Rouge de Noirs Brut, Pinot Noir Sparkling Wine, Carneros – fragrant with raspberries and crisp acidity.

1980 Heinemann Vineyard, Pinot Noir, Napa Valley – matsutake mushroom, cinnamon, leather, earth, camphor.

1983 Heinemann Vineyard, Pinot Noir, Napa Valley – umami, salted cherries, blood orange, sous bois.

1983 Beckstoffer Vineyard, Pinot Noir, Carneros-Napa Valley

1986 Beckstoffer Vineyard Pinot Noir, Carneros-Napa Valley – cranberry, softly textured, exotic spice

1992 Hertiage Reserve Pinot Noir, Carneros – Pretty fruit mid-palate, tobacco, sapidity

1992 Heritage Reserve, Cabernet Sauvignon, Sonoma Valley – very ethereal tannins, tart cassis, cumin, brown spice

2002 Heritage Reserve Chardonnay, Carneros – a stunner, balanced, brioche, lemon butter, touch of coconut yet crisp, focused

2020 White Pinot Noir, Carneros – charming, blossom, elderflower, structure from dry extract

2019 Estate Grown Chardonnay, Carneros – This was Johannes’ first vintage for the winery. Rich on the palate from musque with lemon zest.

2019 Ricci Vineyard, St. Laurent, Carneros – charming chilled, melon and spice

2018 Estate Grown Pinot Noir, Carneros – roses, pomegranate, vanilla

2019 Rancho Salina Cabernet Sauvignon, Moon Mountain – the future

Sneak peek at the Slow Wine Guide USA 2021 print edition

For the first time the Slow Wine Guide USA 2021 edition is available in print. As the only US guide that lists eco-friendly wineries, myself and the 20 coordinators who help write the guide can only continue this work with your support. The purchase of even one guide will make that possible.  It’s really easy to buy from us directly:

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Slow Wine debuts its first stand-alone guide which has been expanded to cover the wineries and wines from the United States’ major wine growing regions of California, Oregon and Washington and New York states.

As the only U.S. wine guide that includes eco-friendly criteria for inclusion, the 2021 edition profiles 285 producers and more than 850 wines all of which celebrate and demonstrate the Slow Food ethos of “good, clean and fair” that forms the foundation of our work.

Now in its fourth year of publication, producers from Washington and New York states are making their debut in the 2021 edition alongside producers from California and Oregon who made participating in the guide a priority during this unprecedented year. Although the coveted Snail award was withheld in 2021, Slow Wine has recognized wines with exemplary sensory qualities as “Top” wines.

Want to support us? Purchase guides directly from Slow Wine and Slow Wine wineries!

Slow Wine Editor-in-chief Giancarlo Gariglio and Fabio Giavedoni, founding partner, decided to expand the guide to include the states of New York and Washington, which was an ambitious goal, even before the pandemic impacted daily life and wine sales.

Our immensely talented team of field coordinators across four states were quick to put their writing skills to work and conduct virtual winery visits in place of the in-person visits which are one of the many things that make the Slow Wine guide so unique. Interested in seeing those videos? You can watch and listen to some of the visits by scanning the QR code of an entry which will take you to the Slow Wine YouTube channel video for that producer.

The guide continues to grow through the efforts of our field coordinators including Senior Editor Pamela Strayer whose subject matter expertise in conventional, organic and biodynamic winegrowing has been a guiding light for several years.  We have also welcomed several new coordinators to our editorial family including Catherine Fallis, MS who reviewed wineries in California and Oregon, Eric Degerman who wrote our first exploratory entries for Washington state, and the dynamic duo of Courtney Schiessl and Katherine Wilcox who have contributed the first entries for New York state.

I’d like to acknowledge and extend heartfelt thanks to the Italian Slow Wine editorial team led by Jonathan Gebser for their editorial guidance and expert production of the digital and print editions of the guide.

Exciting initiatives lie ahead for the Slow Wine guide USA in 2021. We will be working closely with wineries in all four states to speed the adoption of the newly-introduced Slow Food Manifesto for good, clean and fair wine, a ten-point pledge that establishes a code of practice beyond the vineyard and winery to the community at large.

Following Malbec’s fingerprints to identify terroir

What Argentina’s savvy winemakers have known for many decades—that certain vineyards reliably produce superlative wines despite vintage variations—is now scientific fact.

Researchers at the Catena Institute of Wine in Mendoza used a combination of chemometric data and sensory analysis to group a selection of Malbec
wines into distinctive regions and identify the specific vineyard site, or parcela, they hailed from with a high degree of certainty.

The study, which is the first of its kind, took its cue from smaller-scale research done in Burgundy and Valpolicella. But it went a step further in analyzing the phenolic profiles of renowned Malbec wines from 23 parcels distributed across 12 geographic indications in the Uco Valley and Luján de Cuyo—located at the foothills of the Andes Mountains at elevations of 900–1,600 meters—that were made under the same winemaking conditions over a period of three vintages: 2016, 2017, and 2018.

By using chemical data and statistical tools to avoid the vintage effect, researchers were able to clearly separate the wines by location and
identify distinct terroir signatures—something that wouldn’t be possible using the sensory data alone.

Dr. Laura Catena Photo credit: DPW

Not only did they predict the vintage of each wine, 48% of the parcelas studied could be identified by chemical analysis with 100% certainty and the remaining 52% could be identified with up to 83% certainty.

To reach their conclusions, the researchers developed fingerprints by matching the individual subregions and parcelas with 27 phenolic compounds in the wines, which included a dozen red pigments, yellow co-pigments, seed tannins, wood tannins, several antioxidants including resveratrol, and different floral aroma compounds.

The most interesting results were observed in the Uco Valley and the high-elevation subregion of Gualtallary in Tupungato, where the parcelas analyzed produced higher concentrations of key anthocyanins and seed tannin.

About 50% of the parcelas in the study belong to Bodega Catena Zapata and
the remainder to its contract growers. “Winemakers around the world can tell
you that there are differences in their terroirs,” says Dr. Laura Catena, managing director of the family estate, who founded the Catena Institute in 1995 to advance wine quality in Argentina.

Catena Zapata was the first winery to plant in Gualtallary in 1992; its high-altitude Adrianna vineyard sits at 1,450 meters, which is the limit for ripening Malbec. By 2002, Adrianna was the source of its finest fruit, and the winery now has 100 hectares under vine in the subregion.

“Adrianna is Winkler Zone I and sometimes Zone II,” says Catena, “but with
more sunlight hours and a longer growing season, we can ripen Malbec.” Pointing out that the study is a culmination of 20 years of research largely inspired by winemaking director Alejandro Vigil, who came to Catena in 2007 as a soil scientist, she adds, “Until now, we really didn’t know if Malbec
could transmit terroir to this degree.”