It’s not common knowledge that rye whiskey production originated in Pennsylvania and Maryland, where it reached its zenith in the late 19th century. Historically, each state produced a different style: Pennsylvania rye was spicy and bold, while Maryland rye traditionally presented more well balanced flavors.
After Prohibition, rye whiskey almost disappeared altogether. The production of a few surviving brands moved to Kentucky, where an early 2000s revival largely favored the Pennsylvania style. But in 2013, trading on Maryland’s distinct rye pedigree, Sagamore Spirit launched a renaissance of its own.
The name Sagamore—and the brand’s three-diamond emblem—pay homage to Sagamore Farm, an active thoroughbred-racing and -training facility in northern Baltimore County once owned by the Vanderbilt family. The team uses spring-fed water from the farm’s Spring House to proof every bottle of Sagamore at their waterfront distillery in Baltimore’s Port Covington neighborhood.
Corn plays a supporting role to rye in the Maryland-style mash bill. According to company president Brian Treacy, Sagamore relies on two mash bills: One is “high rye,” while the other is “low rye,” a rye-dominant blend that includes corn. The whiskeys are aged separately, blended, and brought to proof with the aforementioned spring water.
Imitation is called the sincerest form of flattery; in the case of Sydney, Australia-based company Lyre’s, which makes a range of alcohol alternative products that mimic classic spirits, it’s an artful homage.
After three years of obsessive research and development by founder and CEO Mark Livings, Lyre’s will make its debut in California, where— under the guidance of Global Brand Ambassador Jeremy Shipley—it’s bound to find a receptive audience. Shipley and Christian Butler, Lyre’s VP of North America, brought the portfolio to San Francisco for a tasting and to shed some light on the ingredients behind these doppelgänger spirits.
“The team at Lyre’s collaborated with Australian sommelier David Murphy to craft and refine the 12 flavor profiles that make up the portfolio,” said Butler, who describes Murphy as their “flavor architect.” Livings and Murphy’s recipes are based on all-natural, botanical essences, extracts, and distillates sourced from all corners of the globe, particularly Germany.
In his 1966 book The Hidden Dimension, anthropologist E.T. Hall states that when it comes to olfaction, Americans are culturally underdeveloped. He attributed this deficiency to the extensive use of deodorants and the suppression of odor in public places, a cultural norm that has resulted in a land of olfactory blandness.
This neutrality – brought about by the suppression of and aversion to odor – exists in other first world countries as well where it is described by the Bororo people of Brazil and the Serer Ndut of Senegal among others as “the smell of death.”
Because odors have been repressed, they’ve never been coded by our culture; there’s no model in place to organize our olfactory life experience and, as such, our response to smells is measured in terms of relative pleasure. Simply put, we only react to odor. By contrast, cultures that attach symbolic meaning to odors like the Suya people of Brazil and the Onge of the Andaman Islands are said to think in smell.
the five senses, smell in Western culture has gotten a bad rap. In the English language
there are fewer positive equivalents for the sense of smell than there are for the
other four senses. You might sniff out a
deal or smell a rat but the terms for nose in our vocabulary particularly as
they relate to wine are more often than not derogatory (snobby, snooty, snotty,
struggle to describe scent is described by Avery Gilbert, author of What the Nose Knows, as the verbal
barrier. Given there’s no lack of words for smell in the English language,
Gilbert defines the verbal barrier as a cognitive problem. Because smell evokes
much deeper memories than either vision or sound, olfactory blandness works to
Imagine the rich olfactory landscape of the Onge, a tribe that defines everything primarily by smell. Their calendar is dictated by the nose; seasons are named after particular scents, largely depending on what types of flowers are in blossom or fruits are in season. They personally identify according to scent and their scent-centered culture is expressed by emphasis on the nose in their language. Even the Onge greeting “Konyune onorange-tanka?” which is the English equivalent of “How are you?” translates as “How is your nose?”
The Onge aren’t the only culture that holds scent in high esteem. In Algeria, the nose is called “nif” and synonymous with honor while in India, greeting someone by smelling their head is the equivalent of a hug or a kiss in the West. In many cultures, the symbolic links between scent and emotion makes the sense of smell the most powerful of the five senses.
As wine professionals, we operate in a culture where odors have been coded largely through the use of rubrics like the Wine and Spirits Education Trust Systematic Approach to Tasting (SAT) and the Court of Master Sommeliers’ Tasting Grid both of which are decried as insufficient for being analytical. In response, let’s look beyond language and shift our cultural norms by creating a richer olfactory landscape that encourages us to attach meaning to scent.
With traditional soft drink manufacturers and venture-capital firms betting big on the rapid growth of premium hydration, a seemingly endless stream of products — the majority of which can be described as functional beverages — has flooded the soft drink market.
From the reinvention of first-generation energy drinks in a bid for “clean” energy to the promise of “healthy” alcohol, consumer preferences are moving toward what one Fortune 500 executive described as a “triangle of taste, nutrition and convenience.”
There’s little doubt this disruptive reinvention of the beverage category will impact wine and beverage alcohol consumption for a host of reasons. Among them is alcohol moderation or abstinence by younger consumers whose lifestyles already include frequent consumption of functional products. While beer and spirits producers have already found purchase in the category through brand extensions and acquisitions, wine producers don’t seem in any hurry to participate.
we understand the physiology of the olfactory epithelium, the organ where
volatile aroma compounds are converted in to the electrochemical signals that we
perceive as aromas, smell or olfaction is still largely a mystery. For example,
we have 400 types of olfactory receptors but we don’t know which volatile aroma
compounds activate the majority of them.
research continues to shed more light upon how our sensory systems function – we’ve
tossed out the erroneous tongue map, a diagram of taste zones on the tongue
that was based on misinterpreted research – recent discoveries reveal that our
tongue plays a much larger role in the perception of flavor throughout our
lifetimes. Flavor being defined as the perception of aromas and tastes combined
with the sensation of textures and temperatures.
the Monell Chemical Senses Center in Philadelphia, PA, a recent study revealed
that we have both taste and aroma receptors on our tongues. The research was
inspired by a child’s curiosity about how snakes use their tongues to sense
their environment. Being equipped to respond to volatile aromas compounds or odorants
means that your tongue also plays a role in the perception of aromas.
Until now it was thought that gustation or taste and olfaction were mutually exclusive systems sending signals through separate neural pathways to their respective cortexes only to be synthesized after they arrived.
When researchers at Monell discovered olfactory receptors side by side with flavor receptors in our taste buds, their discovery demonstrated that the initial cross talk of taste and aroma information may in fact occur there first.
At the very least, they have proven there are multiple pathways for the transmission of electrochemical signals to the olfactory cortex and we’ll certainly see more research further exploring how closely the perceptions of aromas and flavors are linked.
In addition to being the location of our taste buds, the organs where aroma and flavor compounds are processed, we’re learning more about the physiology of our papillae, the bumps on our tongues that most people inadvertently refer to as taste buds.
Three out of four types of papillae – fungiform, foliate and circumvallate – host taste buds. The fourth type, filiform, doesn’t have these receptors. Fungiform papillae have a higher concentration of taste buds all of which will decrease in number and change in shape becoming more closed as we age.
When papillae are open, it’s easier for aroma and taste compounds to come in to contact with the receptors where they are processed. Closed papillae reduce the contact area between these compounds and receptors resulting in diminished perception.
According to findings by researchers at Cardiff Metropolitan University, an active lifestyle and healthy diet, one that includes low to moderate consumption of the five tastes – sweet, sour, salt, umami and bitter – could help to slow down the changes that occur in papillae as we age.
For those of us who routinely bathe our tongues in the acids, tannins and alcohol found wine, it begs the question, “How will a high level of exposure to these compounds impact our ability to perceive tastes and aromas over time?” What we do know is that your general state of health plays a significant role in the ability to smell and taste at any age.
Ask Jack Daniel’s enthusiasts what they like most about their preferred whiskey and the term “consistency” comes up time and time again. According to Kevin Smith, a microbiologist who serves as the Distillery Manager of Reliability & Technical Services for the brand, “The character and consistency of our spirits are the result of several different factors, and that is what defines our terroir.”
The concept of terroir expression in distilled spirits didn’t gain prominence until fairly recently, a shift driven both by research and best practices that determine desired flavors and character.
While grain sourcing is proving to be a factor of this expression for single malts, the use of multiple grains – as seen in the Jack Daniel’s grain bill of 80% corn, 12% barley , and 8% rye – makes the influence of any one component more difficult to detect.
“At Jack Daniel’s, we find that sourcing the highest-quality grains is far more important than the location in which the grains are grown,” Smith says. A grain bill is destined for conversion and Smith makes good use of the naturally-occurring enzymes in malted barley; this results largely in maltose fermentation versus a full glucose fermentation employing commercial (biotech) enzymes.
In other words, glucose fermentation tends to produces a lighter distillate, while a predominately maltose fermentation by yeast produces a richer, more flavorful distillate that better retains the natural flavor contribution of the barley.
“This choice has a greater effect on whiskey character that the terroir of the grain,” says Smith, who professes that microbiological processes are never easy to wrangle. Orchestrating the microbiome of a whiskey is no exception.
Yeasts also play a major role in defining a given whiskey’s aroma and taste. According to Smith, the Jack Daniel’s Distillery uses a proprietary yeast strain, dubbed “101,” with a subtle but identifiable character attributed to an ester (iso-amyl acetate). It’s sweet, fruity, banana-and-pear-like aroma carry over to the whiskey and remains post-maturation.
According to Assistant Master Distiller Chris Fletcher, the strain dates back to the Prohibition era when it was “originally maintained as an old ‘jug yeast.'” Fletcher places its importance second only to that of the barrel regime in terms of house style. “Commericial yeast is the standard in Scotland and Ireland, but we know that our yeasts are contributing a lot of flavor,” he adds.
Responsible for maintaining the yeast archive, Smith has isolated and catalogued various substrains of yeast since he joined Jack Daniel’s in 1998. When evaluating yeasts, Smith purposefully selects strains that produce low levels of fusel oils (200-250 grams per 100 liters). “The amount of fusel oils produced by a yeast can range from 100 – 700 grams per 100 liters. Our goal is to isolate desired strains for flavor and consistency,” he explains.
At the distillery, sour mashing is a two part process that unfolds during the yeast and mashing stages. The best-known component of the sour-mash process is the use of “backset” or spent stillage from the distillation run. This backset is added to the mix of grain and water in the mashing process. The second and very traditional component is the use of a “lactic-soured” yeast mash made exclusively from rye and malt grains and fermented by Lactobacillus debrueckii.
During this process, a lactic culture is scaled up from nine liters and added to into the yeast mash cooker; this lactic-soured yeast mash is then used to grow and scale up the yeast cultures in progressively larger stages from 250 milliliters to 13,000 liters before it’s added to fermenters. The combination of backset in the mash and the lactic-soured yeast mash drops the pH of the mash down to 4.8 or lower.
The souring process serves as a vital step that inhibits spoilage microbes and adds additional character to the whiskey. “By optimizing the [distillation] process through good yeasting, we not only achieve the highest yield [but] also improve aromas and flavors,” Smith says, noting that all Brown Forman distilleries use the traditional practice of lactic souring.
Distillation equipment also has a significant influence on the organoleptic character of the spirit and can either enhance or minimize the influence of the mash bill. “During and average 12-hour shift, we can run 300,000 to 350,000 gallons of fermented mash through the still columns,” says Distillery Operator Drew Smith. “In the grain mill, we can grind 55.000 pounds of corn in an hour’s time.”
A display of 16 screens in the control room makes it possible for Drew and the other distillery operators to maintain quality at this scale of production. “During the fermentation process we use technology that monitors set points and, during every shift, I measure and record the temperatures of each active fermenter as a precaution,” he explains. This ability to closely monitor all aspects of production enable the still house to meet demand and correct inconsistencies in real time.
The whiskey’s final influences come from charcoal mellowing – also known as the Lincoln County Process – and barrel maturation which together determines the finished style of the spirit. Not only do they modulate the yeast esters and the effects of lactic souring, they act as essential steps in maintaining the aforementioned consistency of Jack Daniel’s Tennessee Whiskey.
“Craft is about process, not about size,” says Kevin Smith. Considering his commitment to a task as complex as constructing the microbiome of Jack Daniel’s, perhaps “craft” would be better described as high art.
A decade of collaboration and the evolution of Central Otago Pinot Noir.
When winegrowers in Burgundy found kindred spirits among the
winegrowers of Central Otago the resulting collaboration now in its twelfth
year has everyone who loves Pinot Noir cheering.
The idea behind the Central Otago Burgundy Exchange was born
in 2006 when Sophie Confuron of Domaine Jean-Jacques Confuron attended the
Central Otago Pinot Noir Celebration. Confuron, who had been invited to present
a talk about how the beliefs and practices of the Cistercians advanced the
notion of terroir, suggested to Rippon Estate’s Nick Mills that they start a
student exchange between the two regions and the idea was born.
80 stagiaires later, the success of the Exchange can be defined in several ways but according to Mills, it’s most evident in the approach the returning interns, from both sides, now bring to their craft. The Exchange has been as much about cultural awareness as it is about the practical experiences of making Pinot Noir having fostered reciprocal philanthropic and diplomatic support, art exhibits and a documentary video.
In 2017 a delegation of ten Central Otago producers – Aurum, Domaine Rewa, Domaine -Thomson, Felton Road, Gibbston Valley, Mt. Difficulty, Prophet’s Rock, Rippon, Quartz Reef and Wooing Tree – traveled to Burgundy to mark the 10th anniversary of the program. In doing so they brought a singular and defining celebration of turangawaewae (their place in the world) to the Chambre du Roi at the Hospices de Beaune.
The program which was administered through a winegrower
association and agricultural college for each region: the Mosaïque Bourgogne
International (MBI) and the CFPPA de Beaune in Burgundy and the Central Otago
Winegrowers’ Association (COWA) and the Otago Polytechnic Central Campus is now
in its twelfth year. Although it’s no
longer being formally administered, it’s well established and stagiaires
continue to work in either region every harvest. One of the most compelling and
celebrated examples of sympatico that has developed between the two regions can
be found in Cuveé Aux Antipodes, a wine sourced from the Bendigo ‘Home
Block’ at Prophet’s Rock.
Easily the region’s newest cult wine, the Prophet’s Rock Cuveé
Aux Antipodes 2017 is a collaboration between winemaker Paul Pujol and Francois
Millet, winemaker for 30 years at Domaine Comtes Georges de Vogüé and a master
of the Chambolle grands crus Bonne Mars and Chambolle-Musigny.
On the final day of the 2019 Central Otago Pinot Noir
Celebration, Jasper Morris MW led a guided discovery tasting of five Central
Otago wines titled “12 Years of the Central Otago Burgundy Exchange –
What have we learned?”
During the course of the tasting, Morris made several observations about the evolution of both winegrowing and winemaking in Central Otago. He noted that producers were now more inclined to “letting the Pinot Noir come to [them].”
“There used to be too much winemaking [in Central Otago] and
what it produced were wines capable of aging that may want cellaring for a few
years. We now see wines with a
saturation of fruit and seductive herbs that will evolve versus simply aging
Over the last decade, formal tastings at the Celebration have covered many aspects of Burgundian terroir. In addition to Morris, this year’s panelists included Lucie Lawrence from Aurum, Nick Mills and Louis Meunier, a winemaker from Domaine Jean-Jacques Confuron, who first came to Central Otago in his early 20s.
“Through my time in Central Otago, I’ve come to know another
side of Pinot Noir and its transparency of this terroir. Over the last ten
years I’ve also seem climate change first hand with early bud beak and increased
sugar levels at harvest. It raises many questions: ‘How adaptable is Pinot
Noir? Will vines be able to reach old age?’”
The flight of six wines were produced by stagiaires who had
participated in the exchange program. A charming Quartz Reef 2016 with lovely
focus made by Alex Millot was followed by five wines produced from hallowed
Burgundian terroirs including Premier Cru and Grand Cru sites by French
winemakers who had participated in the Exchange in Central Otago. They were
selected to demonstrate both the technical and philosophical evolution that has
closed the gap between the two regions.
The last time I conducted field research in Central Otago was 2011 at the very beginning of the 3.0 era. Since that time, there’s been an evolution in the overall quality and style of the Pinot Noir wines being produced here. There’s far less extraction and domineering new oak apparent in the wines and significantly more emphasis on transparency of terroir.
That evolution doesn’t smack of emulation, it transmits tūrangawaewae or respect for place. Over the last decade the vines have matured right along with the winemaking allowing Pinot Noir to take center stage.
The three-day 2019 Pinot Noir Celebration held in Queenstown, Central Otago delivered on Chairman Paul Pujol’s welcome promise of examining the region, its producers and their wines with a perspective as fresh as a stiff breeze off Queenstown Bay.
The evolution of the Central Otago wine region over the last decade – dubbed 4.0 in the region’s timeline – has been both inspiring and, in many ways, climatic. Evidenced by the fact that at least one sub region – Bannockburn with 325 hectares under vine – is now considered fully planted.
In 2016, Bannockburn vineyard owners collaborated to produce a vineyard map of the entire sub region detailing vineyard ownership, varieties planted, topography, row orientation and individual vineyard blocks. The three-year project was spearheaded by Felton Road’s Blair Walter whose tenure as winemaker there began in 1997.
According to Walter, this level of technical vineyard
mapping is vital to the evolution of Central Otago as a fine wine region. With
the emphasis that’s being placed on bottling single vineyard Pinot Noir which
accounts of 78 percent of plantings in Bannockburn, it’s a giant step towards
dialing in the terroir of this young, aspirational sub region.
The boundaries of Bannockburn as defined by the map encompass land south of the Kawarau River and east of Walkers Creek (Kawarau Gorge), across to the Clutha Arm of Lake Dunstan. In addition to Pinot Noir, the region is planted to Pinot Gris (8%), Riesling (6%) and Chardonnay (5%) with another seven varieties making up the balance.
With a recent update to the map completed, vineyard owners are
on track to register Bannockburn as a formal GI in the New Zealand
Geographical Indications (Wines and Spirits) Registrations Act. “We’ve been
progressing the application and now that the 2019 harvest is over, a few of us
will be putting the final touches to it,” said Walter. “Hopefully we’ll be ready
for filing sometime in June.”
As New Zealand’s southern-most winegrowing region, the evolution of Central Otago can be defined in four waves: Plantings that took place prior to 1990 establish the timeline at 1.0 (these include Rippon and Gibbston Valley), 2.0, a second wave of vineyards planted between 1991 and 1997 (Felton Road was first planted in 1992 by Stewart Elms), 3.0 includes sites planted between 1998 and 2007 defines the most dynamic period of growth and development for the region, and 4.0 which began when plantings picked up again in 2010.
Central Otago 3.0
The decade spanning 1998 to 2007 was the focus of the Discovery Tasting presented on the first day of the Celebration by a panel composed of winemaker Jen Parr of Valli Wine, Emma Jenkins MW, Mike Winter, viticulturist at Te Kano Estate, Felton Road winemaker Blair Walter and moderator Sarah-Kate Dineen of Maude Wines. Tasked with illustrating the dynamic 3.0 era, they selected six wines that set the stage for the success that has since followed.
Providing proof of concept with regard to the longevity of Bannockburn, Walter’s Felton Road 2010 Cornish Point Pinot Noir was striking in its youthful intensity showing flickers of smoke and umami on a medium-weight body and lifted finish.
It was an auspicious start down the road to a trio of 2015s: Mondillo Bendigo showed bright, ripe red and black cherries from that warmer site for a wine that was balanced and elegant with obvious restraint applied in the cellar. Notes on the Aurum Lowburn Mathilde describe a red and black “fruit explosion” on the mid palate, graphite and a moderate level of extraction. Judge Rock Alexandra was quiet on the nose with char, cranberry and raspberry on a medium body.
The 2016s expressed more primary fruit: Two Degrees Queensberry had earthier black fruit and purity with a flicker of complexing bitterness while the Valli Gibbston Vineyard revealed classic spiciness, pomegranate and pleasingly gritty tannins.
Of the key factors that influenced these wines, gains in quality were attributed to the more vigorous, drought-tolerant rootstocks namely 3309, 1068, 4453 that were introduced during 3.0 and found to be good for organic sites with permanent in-row groundcovers. The introduction of new clonal material including 943, 828 and MV6 which form more open bunches was also noted.
Central Otago 4.0
There was an abundance of star power during the walk-around
tasting hosted at Amisfield winery on Friday morning including actor and vintner
Sam Neill whose Two Paddocks wines are produced from organically-certified estate
vineyards in three of the region’s main valleys – Gibbston, Cromwell and
Forty producers were on hand to present two wines, a current release Pinot Noir and a second wine of their choosing. Time didn’t allow for a visit to every station but of the 38 wines tasted, older vintages many of which were Abel clone monovarietal or dominant distinguished themselves that crisp morning.
Older vintages by vintage:
Mount Michael 2005, fully developed with dried
flowers, dusty fruit and forest floor.
Mt. Edward Bannockburn 2011, Abel clone with a smoky
note that harkened back to the Felton Road 2010 from the Discovery tasting the
Ceres 2011, on the weightier end of the style spectrum,
a meaty, spicy, smoky example from Bannockburn clay.
Peregrin 2012, darkly fruited with generous,
Akitu 2013 which is 70% Abel clone showed dried fennel
and sublime balance.
Prophet’s Rock Retrospect 2014, chalky, clay
soils, restrained with a very silky texture.
Standouts among the current releases from 2016 and 2017 spanned
a range of styles from those that showed little use of new oak up to as much as
50% but nothing that warranted descriptors like “woody” or “oak dominant,” a sure
fire sign of restraint.
Current releases alphabetically:
Akarua 2017, subject to the “morning bake” on the north-facing crescent overlooking the Cromwell Valley shows black cherries and raspberries, vanilla and resolved tannins. 2016 (tasted a few days earlier with winemaker Andrew Keenleyside) was leaner, focused and refined reflecting the vintage.
Akarua Kolo 2016, earthier with a mineral backbone, generous intensity, umami and complex spice.
Aurum Madeleine 2016, with refined cherry, cola and umami notes.
Carrick Bannockburn 2016, floral with good red fruit intensity and 10% new oak.
Ceres 2017, more extraction, meaty, spicy and smoky.
Domaine-Thomson “Surveyor Thompson” 2017, Lowburn, biodynamic estate fruit showing transparency of terroir and silky, resolved tannins.
Mount Michael 2017, darker fruit and 50% new oak still integrating.
Prophet’s Rock Cuveé Aux Antipodes 2017, distinct red plum, wet earth and spice, transparent and silky.
Rockburn 2017, leaner red fruit, umami, tannins with a granular crunchiness.
Tarras The Canyon 2016, rich, spicy and elegant with fine, silky tannins.
On the final day of the Celebration, Jasper Morris MW led a guided Discovery Tasting of five wines titled “12 Years of the Central Otago Burgundy Exchange – What have we learned?” Read about the experience here – Kindred Spirits.
“2016 was precision, 2017 is depth and freshness.”- Dominic Symington
“Years ending in seven have historically been very good for vintage port declarations,” said Rupert Symington, CEO of Symington Family Estates as he recounted vintages as far back as 1897 and 1907 during his opening remarks for the preview tasting of the 2017 vintage port declaration in San Francisco. “These [wines] are the final blends although they may not yet have been bottled. They’ll be coming through to the market in August.”
The flight of 16 vintage ports produced by the Symington Family Estates, The Fladgate Partnership and Quinta do Noval were presented to the trade during the tasting hosted on May 9th at the Nikko Hotel.
Carlos Agrellos, techincal director of Quinta do Noval, offered general impressions of the 2017 vintage. “2017 is an exceptional vintage but quite different from 2016 in all aspects,” he said. “We experienced a cold, dry winter and a hot, dry spring and summer. It only rained 300 mm in the Douro in 2017 and the soils dried out which is very extraordinary. June was the hottest month on record since 1980 with extreme temperatures of 40 – 44 C. This put us 15 to 20 days early for all phases of vine growth. We began harvest on the 17th of August which meant that holidays were cut short as we rushed back from vacation to begin harvest. We finished the 2017 harvest on the date that we typically begin and although we have lower yields, we still see very fine grapes in extreme years such as this.”
The flight began with Cockburn’s
2017 presented by Charles Symington, head winemaker for Symington Family
The estate vineyards blended to produce Cockburn’s are located in the Douro Superior at Quinta dos Canais. These south facing-sites are the hottest in Douro resulting in wines that are ripe with velvety tannin, high acidity and more evolved raisined fruit with dark chocolate and some astringency on the finish. The original blend focused on Touriga National and we’ve reintroduced 50% Touriga back in to the blend of 30% Touriga Franca, 10% Souzao, 8% Alicante Bouchet and 2% other. Souzao brings the acid and gives the wine length. On the nose there’s esteva followed by cassis, kirsch, black pepper and a dryness that gives it length. The wines are made in lagares and constitute 8% of Cockburn’s production. “There’s viscosity and more tannin that I’ve ever tasted in these wines.” Score: 98
Croft 2017 by David
Bruce Fonseca Guimaraens, winemaker at The Fladgate Partnership:
2016 had a purity of fruit but there’s a different profile here with more wild fruit and tremendous structure. The blend is based on Cima Corgo and shows resinous herbs, eucalyptus, some passion fruit and tropical notes. It’s quite smooth on the palate, very fresh and vibrant with great potential for agebility. Score: 98
Croft Quinta da RoêdaSelicos 2017 comments by Adrian Bridge, CEO, The Fladgate Partnership:
This is a new offering for us coming from some very old vines that perform well in drought conditions. There’s evidence of some red fruit and esteva on a lighter body with medium plus acidity. The Selicos bottling refers to “silken” and these vines were the first plantings in Cima after Phylloxera. The estate is very low yielding producing 200 cases in 2017. Score: 97
Dow’s 2017 by Rupert Symington:
The Symington’s acquired the estate in the early 1900s which originally came from the Warre family. Historically shippers did not own land in the Douro but they began buying after Phylloxera and this started a tradition. Dow’s also bought Bonfim in Cima Corgo (1896) and Senhora da Ribeira (1890) in the Douro Superior. Markers for Bonfim are chocolate and green figs. Aromas here are deep violet and very fresh smelling, with boysenberry and vanilla on a palate that’s quite smooth with some astringency of green tobacco on the finish. “Classic Dow’s is on the drier side and it’s a keeper. Dow’s is a personal favorite of mine for a young vintage.” Score: 98
Fonseca 2017 by David Bruce Fonseca
The most astringent of the flight indicating a wine intended to lay down. “You’ll notice some orange zest which comes from three quintas in Pinhão that are known for their freshness and firm finish.” Score: 93
Graham’s 2017 by Dominic Symington:
Sourced from the eastern mesoclimate of Cima Corgo this is a blend from four quintas. “The wine is an opaque black purple and very floral with violets, esteva, rose water, bergamot, some mint with medium acidity and very good intensity mid palate. It’s a voluptuous wine with very good length.” Score: 100
Graham’s 2017 The Stone Terraces – Charles Symington, chief winemaker of Symington Family Estates:
This is a micro-terroir wine hailing from two sites north and east-facing parcels below the main house of Malvedos. There’s a tropical note that shows in the aromas and on the palate there’s orange blossom and some peach with medium acidity and more resolved tannins. 600 cases were produced which is about 4% of our production. Score: 100
Krohn 2017 – David Bruce Fonseca
They did not show the 2016 in the U.S. because of a change in distribution of the brand which is now with Kobrand. Quinta do Retiro Novo is located in the Rio Torto river valley and the wines tend to have more savory notes and higher alcohol. 2017 shows leaner somewhat austere fruit with orange blossom, cassis, grippy tannins and black pepper on a drier finish. Score: 96
Quinta do Noval 2017 by Carlos Agrellos:
There is a lot of variety in the terroir of the estate which ranges from 130 – 250 meters in altitude. They have options beyond the best parcels and lots to choose from resulting in a wine that presents a better representative of the estate. 2017 is more complex, very spicy and floral with medium plus acidity making it very fresh on the palate. Score: 97
Quinta do NovalNacional 2017 by Carlos Agrellos:
Sourced from a small parcel of ungrafted vines of which 1.6 hectares has survived. The estate was replanted in 1924 and there have been 35 vintages from the site. The vines are quite different and express in a different manner giving wines that are fresh with less viscosity and density and somewhat gritty textures. We also find a bit of cedar, exotic wood and licorice. The wine is foot tread over three days. The site is capable of producing vintages in off years and the wines have their own rhythm. 200 cases of 2017 were made. Score: 99
Quinta de Romaneira 2017 by Carlos Agrellos:
There’s a wild aromatic expression here showing the wine is Touriga Nacional dominant. We find fresh berries, very bright, sweet cassis and not as much secondary. Score: 93
Taylor Fladgate 2017 – David Bruce
They lost some bunches to heat in 2017 but they found records of similar conditions in 1945 and the result was a “typical Taylor” rather austere and precise. The wines have been scored very highly thus far. Score: 96
Taylor Fladgate Vargellas Vinha Velha 2017
– David Bruce Fonseca Guimaraens:
This is the essence of the property, a Taylor on steroids, and the 8th release of the wine since 1985. A field blend of century-old vines that takes four vines to produce a single bottle. This is the most easterly property they own and the north-facing amphitheater vineyard works best in warm years. The wine showed peach skin, stone fruit and more evolved fruit, star anise and cedar, tootsie roll and dark spice. Score: 99
Quinta do Vesuvio 2017 – Rupert Symington:
The quinta is only 30 kilomters from Spain in the Douro Superior with very low yielding vines of just 700 grams per vine. It was originally the crown jewel of Don Antonia Ferreira and planted to olives after being devastated by Phylloxera. Vesuvio was one of the first properties planted to mono varietal blocks and has produced vintage ports since 1989. The wines are made in lagare but destemmed and cooled. 2017 is richly fruited showing blueberries, spearmint, vanilla and dry ginger. Score: 98
Capela do Vesuvio 2017 – Dominic Symington:
The estate was replanted by massal selection from the original vines and includes Alicante Bouchet and Souzao. The result is a gorgeous blend with lovely consistency in the growing cycle. Touriga Franca needs the heat and sun and with the advanced growing cycle in 2017 the gap was narrowed so it could be co-fermented with the old vines and Touriga Nacional. Very aromatic and sublime with black tea leaf and pretty blue fruit, mocha and medium acidity on the palate. Score: 99
Warre’s 2017 – Charles Symington:
Originally Warre’s was mostly sourced from the Douro Superior and now they’ve gone back to Pinhão for a more feminine style with a high percentage (60%) of old vineyards that yield just 500 grams per vine. The wine shows forward fruit with blueberry, sweet/tart boysenberry and a touch of astringency 3600 cases were produced. Score: 96
Vineyards and apple orchards lie under the soaring peaks that surround Bolzano, the bustling center of Alto Adige, a pristine and autonomous region in northeastern Italy. Less than a two-hour drive from Innsbruck over the dizzying Brenner Pass, Bolzano is a study in contrasts; a place where Austrian and Italian cultures merge and Old and New World lifestyles converge.
Restaurateur and Italophile Bobby Stuckey once observed, “There are certain places in Italy that catch Americans off guard because they are not what we expect Italy to be.” Alto Adige is one such place. With three official languages – German, Italian, and the ancient Ladin language – plus the addition of English which serves as the common language for visitors, the region is overflowing with culture.
As evidenced by Otzi, the 5300 year-old Neolithic mummy on display in the Museum of Archeology in Bolzano, the fertile, glacier-carved valleys of Italy’s Alto Adige region have nurtured human civilization for millennia. They region continues to nurture travelers with the pristine air of the Dolomites and the pleasures of the glass and table.
The region’s indigenous Ladin language and culture can be traced to 15 BCE when the people of the Central Alps were absorbed into the Roman province of Rhaetia. Filled with poetry and legends heavily influenced by Germanic myths and peopled by all manner of fairies, dwarfs, witches and heroes, Ladin culture is taught in schools and protected by local laws.