When I first tasted the Valpolicella wines produced by Valentina Cubi in January of 2011, I was captivated. After visiting the organic estate a few times over the last decade and tasting the wines during the annual Amarone Anteprima events that are held every February in Verona, my appreciation has only deepened. This year the winery which is located in the Valpolicella Classica region of Fumane marks a key milestone celebrating a decade of organic certification.
The level of quality and beauty achieved in Cubi’s flagship Amarone Biologico Morar DOCG which was first released in 2016 represents far more than a return on an investment in organic certification. According to Valentina, “The first organic wine we bottled was Iperico, organic Valpolicella DOC, and that wine has traced our way.”
Winegrowing practices at the estate which was certified organic in 2010 include the use of vegetable compost or green manure that contains herbs to balance soil vitality and fertility while preventing imbalances. Cubi also incorporates biodynamic vineyard management practices as well with applications of 500P and 501 preparations to promote optimal vine health.
The ten-hectare estate is in Fumane, the northwestern-most region of Valpolicella Classica, and gets a moderating influence from Lake Garda just a few kilometers away. Vineyards are south and southeast-facing and planted on terraces from 170 to 350 metres on the slopes of the Lessini Mountains. Rocky, sandy, clay-based soils enable the estate to be farmed without irrigation.
Cubi began converting the estate to organic viticulture in 2007 and conducted her initial trials in the Ca ‘di Cozzi vineyard, near Verona. After which she converted the lower-elevation estate vineyards including Casterna, the vineyard behind the winery. This vineyard is Guyot trained and planted to permanent cover crops.
Prior to the initial conversion to organic which has occurred in two phases, the estate had been farmed conventionally in a way that Cubi describes as being “environmentally friendly.” She credits this with significantly reducing the stress on the vineyards during conversion something that has enabled them to preserve even their oldest vines planted in 1973 in the higher-elevation Monte Tenda cru.
According to Cubi, the second phase of organic conversion began in 2010 to bring the oldest vineyards which are planted to the estate’s highest elevations in to certified organic production by 2014.
Today the estate produces a portfolio of wines that range from the easy-drinking Iperico, the estate’s first organic release; Italbarro, a Valpolicella Superiore that spends one year in Slavonian oak; and Arusantico, a Ripasso named for the indigenous people who inhabited the Valpolicella region prior to Roman occupation.
The winery’s flagship, Morar, is an elegant, dry Amarone that is only released when deemed ready. Melioto, a Recioto, and Sin Cero, a sulfite-free natural wine, are only produced when the vintage conditions dictate. The estate produces between 45,000 and 70,000 bottles annually.
Cubi has been an advocate for organic farming in Valpolicella for more than a decade and her convictions have resulted in a marked improvement in the expression and vitality that I find in the wines. When I was visiting the region in 2018 for the Valpolicella Educators Program sponsored by the Consorzio Tutela Vini Valpolicella, her wine Morar was among those presented in the blind tasting examination. It was like greeting a good friend after an absence and picking up immediately where you left off. Only better.
Congratulations, Valentina Cubi, and tanti auguri for another delicious vintage.
It’s Sauvignon Blanc—not Grüner Veltliner—that’s the star of the show in Austria’s Südsteiermark DAC, a historic winegrowing region in the country’s southern state of Styria that has evolved rapidly over the last thirty years. The variety is grown at high elevation in all five of Südsteiermark’s sub regions and on steep slopes that rival those of the Mosel.
Of them, Kitzeck-Sausal has the highest and steepest. With its elevation exceeding 2,100 feet and more than 100% slope, it is also the highest-steepest Sauvignon Blanc winegrowing region in the world. (The world’s steepest vineyard is the Bremmer Calmont located on the Mosel which has a 210% slope and sits at 950 feet.)
Südsteiermark’s transition from producing sweet, classically-styled wines to incredibly high-quality dry wines from Sauvignon Blanc began more than 30 years ago with winegrowers Erich Polz, Willi Sattler, and Manfred Tement. In 1993 the wineries Sattlerhof, Tement, Polz, Prünte, Winkler-Hermaden, Lackner-Tinnacher and Gross established the Steirische Klassik, a precursor of the producer group now known as Steirische Terroirs & Klassik Weinguter aka the STK.
Similar in many respects to Germany’s VDP, the STK in 2006 established guidelines for further classifying the region’s Rieden (registered single vineyards). In doing so they relied on historic vineyard names taken from the oldest maps of Styria many of which have been noted on labels since the 1980s. The work of the 12 producer members who now form the STK was instrumental in the recent elevation of Südsteiermark to a Controlled District of Austria (DAC) region in 2018.
STK producers Gross, Lackner-Tinnacher, Wolfgang Maitz, Polz, Erwin Sabathi, Hannes Sabathi, Sattlerhof, Tement, and Wohlmuth are located in Südsteiermark DAC. Producers Frauwallner, Winkler-Hermaden and Neumeister are located to the east of Südsteiermark in the neighboring region of Vulkandland Steiermark where Sauvignon Blanc is grown in all three subregions.
In addition to the regional, village and riede wines produced in Südsteiermark and Vulkanland, the STK has further designated single-vineyard sites as Erste STK for the production of STK Premier Cru wines and Grosse STK for STK Grand Cru-designated wines. The criteria that define Erste and Grosse sites and wines relies on both vineyard and winemaking factors. Most notably, the requirement for hand harvesting which given the extremely sloped vineyards is practically a given. Sites must be sloped – many exceed 45% and approach 90% – and run from east to west with a favorable mesoclimate.
Styria can be roughly divided into a northern mountain region, which is not suited for wine growing, an the southern region which has a mixed Alpine-Mediterranean climate in the higher-elevation western regions and a Pannonian-Continental climate in the lower eastern region. Südsteiermark DAC is defined as having a humid Alpine (also referred to as Illyrian)-Mediterranean climate with marked diurnal shift (~25-30°C during the day and 8-20°C at night) and warm, amphitheater-like sites that sit above the fog line where they are protected from overnight frost that occurs in the spring. Cool rain moderates summer temperatures but hail poses a risk during the long growing season that is ideally suited for achieving balanced ripeness in Sauvignon Blanc.
Although winegrowing practices are not universal, there are a number of best practices like the use of mechanization that has been specialized over the last decade to manage ground cover. For example, permanent in-row ground covers are often rolled instead of mowed to preserve habitat. Austria recently passed a law prohibiting the use of the synthetic herbicide Glyphosate in vineyards and winegrowing in harmony with nature is emphasized.
Netting is used to protect the vines from hail and to restrict the canopy. Stony soils also help manage the requirement for low yields of this typically high-yielding variety. Clonal selection in the vineyards is more or less homogenous as massal selection has been the primary source of plant material since Sauvignon Blanc was introduced to Südsteiermark by Archduke Johann in the early 1800s. Vines are quite healthy with Eutypa being the only common virus.
Made with the Intention to Age
In addition to their unique terroirs, specified minimums for vine age and extremely low yields, STK Premier Cru and Grand Cru wines are subject to lengthy bottle conditioning and aging requirements. STK Premier Cru wines are released no earlier than September twelve months post-harvest and must demonstrate five years aging potential while Grosse STK Grand Cru wines are cellared for eighteen months and must have the ability to age gracefully for ten years. The resulting quality and style of these elegant wines makes them some the longest-lived of their kind.
Within the STK there’s been an intentional effort by producers to move beyond fruit forward-styles toward smokier, flinty wines showing complex fruit, spices like ginger and more evolved fruit like grilled pineapple.
As they rely on pristine fruit—typically with no evidence of Botrytis—winemaking practices include malolactic conversion, native yeast fermentation, extended lees aging and very low amounts of sulfur. Fermenting and aging typically takes place in large-format 600-liter Slavonian oak foudre known as a “startin.” Screwcap and glass closures are commonplace although some producers including Polz have returned to using natural cork.
NAVIGATING THE SUBREGIONS Given this general consensus with regard to winemaking practices, wines that hail from the STK Erste and Grosse-designate single vineyards are differentiated more by subregion than by winemaking. We’ll navigate the region beginning in the north then move south and finally east to Vulkanland.
KITZEC-SAUSAL Kitzeck-Sausal is the northern-most subregion where single-vineyards sites were on record as early as 1322. Vines are planted to elevations of 1,250 to 2,130 feet on slopes that can exceed 90%. Soils are very low vigor, weathered slate and schist that retain heat.
WeingutGerhard Wohlmuth is a 20-hectare estate just outside of Kitzeck where the Wohlmuth family has five single vineyards (Riedes) planted to Sauvignon Blanc, Riesling, Pinot Blanc, Pinot Gris and Chardonnay known as Morillon. Gerhard J. Wohlmuth is a second-generation winemaker.
Ried Edelschuh Grosse STK Grand Cru Sauvignon Blanc 2017 A monopole of red and blue-black slate and schist on a 90% slope that tops out at 1740 ft. Showing spiciness from white pepper and elegant white peach while brimming with acidity. “This single vineyard produces wines with both warm and cool characteristics that are attributed to the long growing cycle and the distinctive slate soils,” said Gerhard J. Wohlmuth.
Ried Hochsteinriegl Grosse STK Grand Cru Sauvignon Blanc 2017 A site with black and red slate that reaches an altitude of 1670 ft. and has a 78% slope. Spicy ginger, apricot and stone fruit slaked with cool mineral-drive acidity.
GAMLITZ The name of this village stems from the Slavic term gom, meaning hill. Vineyards here are planted at 1,800 feet on well-drained, sandy soils mixed with mica interspersed with orchards and Illyrian deciduous forests of spruce, fir, pine, and oak trees.
Weingut Hannes Sabathi is a 30-hectare organic estate is located southeast of Wohlmuth on the western side of the Kranach Gorge.
Ried Kranachberg Grosse STK Grand Cru Sauvignon Blanc 2015 From a basin site at 1,500 feet with chalky, sandy, gravelly soils. Apparent floral aromas with optimally ripe tropical fruit and mandarin in a light-handed minerally, fumé style.
Weingut Sattlerhof is a 40-hectare estate run by Hannes Sattler on the western side of the Steinbach Gorge which runs parallel to Kranach.
Ried Kranachberg Grosse STK Grand Cru Sauvignon Blanc 2016 Soils here are tertiary sand with shell limestone and white mica. Extraordinarily complexity savory aromas, pear, green tea, and red pepper with a weighty texture.
Ried Kranachberg Grosse STK Grand Cru Sauvignon Blanc 2012 Apples and asparagus, chamomile, saline mineral with aging potential to 2026.
Ried Sernauberg Erste STK Premier Cru Sauvignon Blanc 2017 From a site with sandy soils showing vibrant orange zest, fresh fennel and superb balance.
Winery Lackner-Tinnacher is a 27-hectare organic estate that lies further south and on the eastern side of Steinbach Gorge. The Tinnacher Family have been winemakers from 1770.
“Quality is not only a matter of having quality soils and vines, it’s a matter of manual work in the vineyards.”
Ried Flamberg Grosse STK Grand Cru Sauvignon Blanc 2017 This site is in Kitzek-Sausal with limestone soils considered by some to be the Holy Grail for long-lived Sauvignon Blanc. Showing orange zest aromas with savory, spicy, and stony mineral avors.
Ried Welles Grosse STK Grand Cru Sauvignon Blanc 2017 Sandy gravel site at 1,700 feet in Gamlitz. Sublime and focused with a whisper of smoke, tea leaves, green apple, white peach, and lemon pith on the finish.
Weingut Gross is a 47-hectare estate in Ratsch where Johannes Gross is the winemaker, and his brother Michael is the director, of the family’s estate Vino Gross in Gorca, Slovenia.
Ried Nussberg Grosse STK Grand Cru Sauvignon Blanc 2017 This bowl-shaped basin reaches 1,500 feet with slopes that reach 85%. Tremendous fruit purity showing salty lemon and white peaches, resinous herbs, and a ripe, structured palate
Ried Sulz Erste STK Premier Cru Sauvignon Blanc 2017Touch of fennel, citrus and pith, lean with intensity and length.
Weingut Wolfgang Maitz is a 15-hectare estate in Ratsch where the family operates a superb hotel and restaurant and Wolfgang Maitz is the third-generation winemaker. The Maitz family were very kind hosts during the long days of this intense research visit.
Ried Hochstermetzberg Grosse STK Grand Cru Sauvignon Blanc 2017 This site has distinct gravelly marl soils known as opok. Fennel, spice notes and creamy texture and weight from aging in 300-liter French oak barrels. The 2013 showed ripe peach and lovely fruit purity illustrating the evolution forward from fruit forward to more austere wine styles.
Reid Schusterberg Erste STK Premier Cru Sauvignon Blanc 2017 Lean and precise with lemon zest and pleasing intensity.
Weingut Tement combines 20-hectares in Ehrenhausen and another 30 hectares in Slovenia. Brothers Armin and Stefan are third-generation winemakers.
“Village wines are the bright future for Südsteiermark. We release them later and they can age for ten years.”
Ried Zieregg Grosse STK Grand Cru Sauvignon Blanc 2017 A very protected site of limestone and opok. Extraordinary intensity, flinty with lemon thyme, young pineapple and saline mineral. The 2012 was riper, honeyed and earthier with oolong tea and white tree fruits.
Weingut Polz is a 35-hectare family estate in Grassnitzberg run by fourth-generation winemaker Christoph Polz and family members. Polz’ ready smile and outgoing character played a significant role in conveying the nuances of the region as he patiently answered technical questions and provided insights.
Ried Hochgrassnitzberg Grosse STK Grand Cru Sauvignon Blanc 2017 Coral reef limestone soils inform the texture of this light-bodied, fumé style from neutral oak with marked citrus zest intensity and wet, white chalk on the finish. He said of the 2015 which was very intense on the mid palate that they “pop” with some age.
Ried Theresienhöhe Erste STK Premier Cru Sauvignon Blanc 2017 This site has slate soils. Lean with melon, fresh herbs, saline minerality and a bright push of acid on the finish, Riesling-like.
LEUTSCHACH Südsteiermark’s southern-most subregion of Leutschach lies below Gamlitz and Ehernhausern and shares its southern border with Slovenia.
Weingut Erwin Sabathi is a 51-hectare family estate with a winegrowing history fr 1650. Winemaker Erwin is the tenth generation to work the estate with his two younger brothers.
Ried Possnitzberg Grosse STK Grand Cru Sauvignon Blanc 2017This site is the southern-most vineyard in Styria, is comprised of opok, and sits on a 75% slope. White blossom and white tree fruit, ripe citrus, linear acidity, lean bodied with stony mineral. The 2015 showed ripe peaches, vanilla custard, golden apple lovely balance.
Ried Poharnig Erste STK Premier Cru Sauvignon Blanc 2017 A monopole site with weathered sandstone and gravel. More pyrazine evident as fresh green herbs, lime, and leaner overall with a saline mineral finish.
Vulkandland Steiermark lies to the east of Südsteiermark on Styria’s eastern border. There are eight villages: Oststeiermark, Riegersburg, Gleichenberg, Kapfenstein, St. Anna, Straden, St. Peter, Tieschen and Klöch, three of which are home to STK wineries. The villages of Kapfenstein in the north, Straden in the central area and Klöch in the south totaling about 1300 hectares of vineyards much of which are Sauvignon Blanc. Vineyards are sited on the slopes and aprons of extinct volcanos and the soils that include tuff stone studded with Peridot (Olivine) that produce wines of power and structure. The region is often compared to Sicily’s Mount Etna.
Winkler-Hermaden is a 40-hectare family estate run by Georg Winkler-Hermaden and his three sons Christof, Thomas, and Wolfgang. The geologist Arthur Winkler-Hermaden researched the region and the 11-century castle Schoss Kapfenstein is the family property.
Ried Kirchleiten Grosse STK Grand Cru Sauvignon Blanc 2017 A site with fine sand a volcanic tuffs. Riper white peach, balanced acidity. The 2013 showed grapefruit and peach with a nutty, peach pit development.
Ried Klöcher Hochwarth 2017 A red clay site with basalt and volcanic tuffs. Pronounced aromas of peaches, white pepper and petrol with a firm mineral finish.
Gebietswein Sauvignon Blanc 2017 International in style with lime, tropical fruit, gooseberries, saline and a lemony finish.
Weingut Frauwallner a 30-hectare estate run by third-generation vintner Walter Frauwallner. The winery joined the STK in 2018.
Ried Buch Grosse STK Grand Cru Sauvignon Blanc 2017 Defined by weathered basalt soils and 1100 ft. Fresh herbs, lime, green apple, salty peach, passion fruit, silky finish from small oak barrel fermentation.
Ried Buch Sauvignon Blanc TBA 2017 Rose petals, grilled pineapple, orange zest, oolong tea, mineral with perfect balance.
Weingut Neumeister is a 40-hectare family estate managed by Christoph Neumeister. The family owns and operates the Saziani Stub’n in Straden which is famous for is regional and experimental cuisine.
Ried Moarfeilt Grosse STK Grand Cru Sauvignon Blanc 2017 Silt over Sarmat gravel. Good mid-palate density, mineral and citrus on a lengthy
Buchberg Alte Reben Sauvignon Blanc 2015 Limestone and sandstone site in excess of 45% planted to Austria’s oldest Sauvignon Blanc vines. Fermented in neutral casks and bottled after three years. Ripe stone fruit, beeswax and autolytic notes with a tight, bright texture.
Anosmia, or the loss of one’s sense of smell, has previously been identified as an early warning sign of the mild cognitive impairment that can lead to Alzheimer’s disease. Now, along with ageuisa—the loss of taste—it’s been cited as one of the most common symptoms experienced by those who have contracted COVID-19.
While they weren’t commonly reported in Wuhan, China, during the early stages of the pandemic, these conditions are often the only symptoms experienced by people with mild cases. However, they can develop after other symptoms appear and remain after most signs of illness are gone.
In the United Kingdom, anosmia and ageuisa have been stronger predictors of COVID-19 than fever. As of April 1 out of 400,000 people reporting one or more symptoms on a mobile tracking app developed at King’s College London, 18% had lost their sense of smell or taste and 10.5% were experiencing fever.
Dr. Zara Patel, a Stanford associate professor who researches olfactory disorders, explains that COVID-19 is just one of a variety of viruses that can attack the trigeminal and olfactory nerves and their surrounding tissue. This type of inflammation, either occurring directly around the nerve in the nasal lining or within the nerve itself, is what causes the complete or partial loss of smell.
According to Patel, people who have a family history of neurological diseases are more vulnerable to damage from viral-induced inflammation and may be less capable of recovering from anosmia, ageusia, or hyposmia, the decreased ability to taste certain types of foods. For this reason, Patel urges seeking treatment, which could include olfactory training as well as medication, as early as possible for symptoms that persist after recovery.
Anyone who has experienced loss of smell or has recently recovered from an upper respiratory infection is encouraged to participate in the Global Consortium for Chemosensory Research survey at gcchemosensr.org. A joint effort between 500 clinicians, neurobiologists, data scientists, cognitive scientists, sensory researchers, and technicians from 38 countries, the survey aims to help uncover how the virus is transmitted—and how to prevent its spread—by asking participants to rate their ability to smell and taste before, during, and after their illness.
A similar survey called SmellTracker has been developed in neurobiologist Noam Sobel’s laboratory at the Weizmann Institute of Science in Israel. Participants are asked to pick five household items from a list that includes vanilla, peanut butter, mustard, garlic, and toothpaste and rate the intensity of their odor and taste over time.
The algorithm then creates an “olfactory fingerprint” that measures olfactory perception and mirrors an individual’s unique genome. Such fingerprints predict genetic features linked to the olfactory system, such as aspects of immune regulation.
Scientists estimate that there are currently eight active strains of COVID-19, and Sobel and his colleagues believe that anosmia may be a differentiating symptom. While the specter of losing our senses of smell and taste, even for a short time, is anxiety-inducing for any wine professional, keep in mind that those who have experienced these symptoms report recovery times spanning ten days to several weeks, with two-thirds of surveyed patients at King’s College London reporting improvement in three weeks.
Much of the California vineyard land that is so prized today was established on tracts granted by the Mexican government to its military leaders, who became the state’s earliest settlers. Among them was Tomas Olivera, who was granted the 9,000-acre Rancho Tepusquet in what is now Santa Maria Valley in 1837.
Olivera later sold the property—which took its name from the Chumash word for “fishing for trout”—to his son-in-law, Juan Pacifico Ontiveros. The first record of grapes being planted there dates to 1857, the year Ontiveros completed the adobe that still stands on the land.
Rancho Tepusquet had been reduced to about 2,800 acres by the time the Miller family purchased it in 1969. But from that seminal moment forward, the ranch and its owners began to play an instrumental role in the evolution of the California wine industry, serving as protagonists in a story that continues to unfold today.
While wine lovers the world over know the iconic Bien Nacido Vineyard, the Millers’ legacy in California agriculture began long before the family planted it on the Tepusquet site. They trace their heritage to Yorkshire native William Richard Broome, who settled in Santa Barbara.
In 1871, Broome purchased the vast Rancho Guadalasca, eventually bequeathing a large portion in what is now southern Ventura County to one of his three children, Thornhill Frances Broome. Thornhill was a talented businessman with diversified holdings, and his heirs have followed suit in forming Thornhill Companies, of which his daughter Elizabeth’s son, Stephen Thornhill Broome Miller, is CEO and President.
Miller’s sons Marshall and Nicholas represent the fifth generation to farm the property now known as Thornhill Ranches, cultivating blueberries as well as the lemons and avocados their forebears grew. (The name Rancho Guadalasca survives as a popular trail at Point Mugu State Park, where Thornhill Broome Beach commemorates the family’s ancestor.)
The Birth of Bien Nacido
Despite their long history of farming, the Millers are relatively new to grapes. When Stephen Miller and his brother Robert sought to diversify their crops to include wine grapes, they settled on the site at Rancho Tepusquet, which was thought by many at the time to be unsuited to viticulture.
Inspired by its striking maritime climate—attributable to the juxtaposition of the San Rafael Mountain and Transverse Ranges to the Pacific coast as well as to its chalky, sandy loam soils—they named it Bien Nacido, which means “well born” in Spanish, and planted it in 1973.
For 30 years, Bien Nacido held the distinction of being a major nursery for varietal budwood as part of the California Grapevine Registration & Certification Program. Most of its original plantings were cool-climate varieties from stock grown by the University of California, Davis, including Santa Barbara County’s first Gewürztraminer and three Pinot Noir clones: Dijon, Martini, and Wädenswil.
Though the Millers no longer grow budwood, according to Nicholas, “there’s now a Syrah clone that is referred to as Bien Nacido.” Beyond that, the vineyard’s initial fame was won by Central Coast winemakers, including Qupé’s Bob Lindquist and Au Bon Climat’s Jim Clendenen.
They produced single-vineyard designates of such high caliber that, for some time, the Miller family was content to work behind the scenes as growers, supporting the nascent industry that was emerging in the region.
In 1988, they opened Wine Services in Santa Maria, offering a consolidated warehousing, bottling, and barrel aging facility; California Certified Organic Farmer (CCOF) certified, it now has an impressive 10,000-ton crush capacity. Seeing the rapid emergence of the industry in Paso Robles, they next opened Paso Robles Wine Services in 2005, and their presence there has contributed to the region’s status as the fastest growing in the state.
“We’ve been gratified by the success of the wineries we’ve worked with over the years,” Stephen says. “They’ve entrusted us by putting Bien Nacido and our other single-vineyard names on their labels.” He attributes the company’s success to its ability to build strategic relationships with the winemakers, characterizing it as an “interactive process” that led him to a watershed moment: “We received a letter from a consumer about how much they enjoyed wines made from Bien Nacido grapes; it was then we realized that consumers were trusting in our vineyard.”
From Growers to Vintners
When Stephen’s sons Marshall (who handles operations for Thornhill Companies) and Nicholas (who spearheads marketing and sales) joined their father in the business in 2006, they knew that it was the right time to put their name on a label. “I applaud the next generation’s effort to lead the company forward,” says Stephen. “Becoming vintners has opened the aperture of what we do as a business.”
In 2007, the Miller family began bottling their own vineyard-designate wines from Bien Nacido as well as Solomon Hills Vineyard, the westernmost site in Santa Maria Valley, which they acquired in 1999. Notable Bien Nacido bottlings include The Captain Pinot Noir, Old Vine Pinot Noir, and XO Syrah, all of which are among the Central Coast’s highest-scoring wines.
Marshall, meanwhile, is keenly aware of the myriad factors that are forcing changes in the wine industry. “Labor costs and the availability of labor, combined with rising minimum wage, is an ongoing concern,” he says, adding that he’s made huge strides with respect to vineyard mechanization at the company’s French Camp Vineyard in the Paso Robles Highlands, about one-third of which is CCOFcertified.
“We’re highly automated at French Camp, and we have a good understanding of what works well and what doesn’t,” he explains. “But mechanized farming is a bit like using a PC from the 1980s; 20 years from now, we’ll be seeing the hybridization of mechanization and optical recognition applied across the board. The goal is to find the places where automation can be used most effectively to assist hand labor.”
Future in the Making
Like son, like father: Stephen is similarly focused on the what’s next for the family enterprise. “Now more than ever,” he says, “we are looking at all aspects of the business and applying creativity with the goal of reaching beyond solving immediate problems to advancing the industry.”
Sustainability measures are a key example: Bien Nacido is certified by both the California Sustainable Winegrowing Alliance and SIP to ensure the preservation of the terroir so beautifully reflected in the wines of the Miller family—whose long-held dream of a winemaking legacy looks to be in good hands, thanks
A plethora of stylistic expression has helped Chardonnay maintain its prominence.
California Chardonnay has had its ups and downs over the last 60 years but it had clearly been a cash cow for many producers whose styles have evolved while remaining a hallmark for others whose style hasn’t changed significantly for decades. Excerpt from the Wine Analytics Report May 2020 by Deborah Parker Wong available as pdf download.
Accurately capturing a snapshot of the Penfolds Bin 389 Cabernet Shiraz – fondly known as “Baby Grange” – involves revisiting a vital moment in the company’s history. The year 2002 marked the beginning of a new era for Penfolds in several respects: Winemaking had once again returned to its Magill Estate after a 29-year hiatus as the winery bid farewell to winemaker John Duval, appointing enologist Peter Gago as chief winemaker.
Credited with reinventing the role, Gago bolstered research and product development while building a rapport with members of the industry and consumers alike. Despite changes weathered by the company, the winemaking team has remained quite consistent.
Gago himself began making sparkling wine for Penfolds in 1989 and moved to red-wine production in 1993, but several of his colleagues in the lab and cellar have had even longer tenures at Penfolds: Red winemaker Andrew Baldwin, for example, has helped produce Bin 389 for more than 30 years.
To say that Gago’s star rose quickly post-appointment would be an understatement. Within three short years the Bin 389 Cabernet Shiraz was recognized as “Outstanding” and the Bin 95 Grange as “Exceptional” by the Langton’s Classification, an independent guide to fine Australian wines that’s been compiled since 1990.
Gago was also named Winemaker of the Year by Wine Enthusiast in 2005 and was recently awarded an Order of Australia – the country’s highest honor- for his contributions to the Australian wine industry.
Sixty Years in the Making
Bin 389, a claret-style blend of Cabernet Sauvignon and Shiraz, was first released in 1960, predating by eight years the release of another iconic Cabernet blend, Sassicaia. Inspired by the experimental St. Henri Clarets – Cabernet and Mataro blends that evolved toward the use of Shiraz – Bin 389 relies on warm-climate Cabernet for its perfumed intensity and chocolaty tannins; the Shiraz, meanwhile, contributes a dynamic presence of opulent fruit.
While several techniques have proved instrumental over the years in evolving the style of Bin 389 (among them partial barrel fermentation in American oak and aging stainless steel-fermented components in seasoned ex-Grange and Bin 707 hogheads), what Gago referes to as the wine’s “original blueprint” remains intact.
Regarding himself as a custodian of that style, he’s set about refining this multidistrict blend – vineyard sources include the Barossa Valley, Coonawarra, Padthaway, Robe, McLaren Vale, Langhorne Creek and Clare Valley regions – through adaptive vineyard management practices that are better suited to modern winemaking techniques.
In a panel review of Bin 389 from seventh edition of Andrew Caillard MWs’ Penfolds:The Rewards of Patience, the vintages of the 1990s are noted as relatively tannic, with beautiful fruit, richness and power; ’91, ’94, ’96 and ’98 as highlights. The early 2000s produced wines with softer textures , a shift attributed to older vines and better tannin management. Vintage highlights were ’02, ’04, ’06, ’08, ’09 and ’10.
The aforementioned Bin 95 Grange (aka Grange), which made its commercial debut in 1952, has long served as Penfolds’ calling card: A Shiraz-dominant, multiregional blend, it usually comprises less than 8% percent Cabernet Sauvignon.
In keeping with Gago’s practice of tasting verticals of older Penfolds vintages alongside panels of expert tasters, I’ve amended my tasting notes to include the historical perspective documented in Penfolds:The Rewards of Patience. This consummate guide to all things Penfolds provides invaluable hindsight through the lens of the world’s most highly-regarded palates.
Penfolds 1990 Bin 389 Cabernet Shiraz, South Australia
A banner year for Bin 389 that was lauded for its rich fruit, chocolatly tannins and balance. Aromas of Cassis underscored by tobacco and earthy minerals. Minty, evolved black fruit akin to mulberry on the palate with vanilla bean and earthy, tarry flavors. Almost powdery tannins and an umami-laden finish. The wine held up well for the first 30 minutes and changed considerably over the course of an hour in the glass. This vintage proceeds Gago who begun working with the red wines in 1993.
Penfolds 1990 Bin 95 Grange, South Australia
Upon its release in 1995, Grange 1990 was named Wine of the Year on Wine Spectator’s Top 100 list. Declared viable through 2045, it shows evolved black fruit akin to mulberry on the palate with minty, vanilla bean and earthy, tarry flavors mid palate that give way to vanilla through the finish. The wine held up well for the first 30 minutes and changed considerably over the course of an hour in the glass. 5% Cabernet Sauvignon.
Penfolds 1996 Bin 389 Cabernet Shiraz, South Australia
Dominated by secondary aromas of earth, umami and eucalyptus. Milk chocolate coats a core of mildly grippy tannins that persist through a lengthy finish of darker fruits. Upon release the 1996 showed classic Cabernet Sauvignon markers of savory red currant and mint with gravelly tannins. Noted as an earlier drinking vintage through 2016, the drinking window has held on longer than anticipated.
Penfolds 1996 Grange, South Australia
Lauded as a “classic” vintage, with star anise and complexing, high-toned varietal aromas. The blue plum and blackberry that defined its youth are supported by still-firm tannins. In 1996, the aging of Grange and Bin wines was discontinued at Magill. 6% Cabernet Sauvignon.
Penfolds 2004 Bin 389 Cabernet Shiraz, South Australia
Comprising 53% Shiraz, this expression and has a dark, compact and refined structure. Medium intensity flavors of black pepper and savory black fruit show a linear progression from its youth. It showed particularly well upon release with brambly fruit and herb/leafy notes earning it a “special wine” designation and a lifespan to 2035. (Gago recommends patience).
Penfolds 2004 Bin 95 Grange, South Australia
Still opulent with aromas of tobacco and dry forest floor aromas as well as a flourish of black raspberry on the palate. Notes of camphor and vanilla cloak a refined tannin structure, with cedar and mocha defining the finish. Largely due to that structure, it was initially given a drinking window to 2050. 4% Cabernet Sauvignon.
Penfolds 2010 Bin 389 Cabernet Shiraz, South Australia
The nose leads with secondary notes of cinnamon and exotic wood spice akin to sandalwood, showing an evolution of more overt vanilla and marzipan aromas of the wine’s youth. The palate is precise, with enervating flavors in the mouth of black fruits moving to darker spice, mocha, bittersweet dark chocolate and, on the finish, a flourish of saffron-infused minerality. Described by Gago as “no wimp” upon release, the vintage was noted as hold until to 2050. It’s still developing, promising even more complexity as tertiary notes begin to emerge. With 51 percent Cabernet Sauvignon.
Penfolds 2016 Bin 389 Cabernet Shiraz, South Australia
“The 1990s [are] antecedents to this vintage,” observed Gago noting that the 2016 has progressed in the same manner. Scheduled for release in August, the wine shows primary notes of red and black fruit, precise varietal expression, and a lithe body that, according to Gago will “fatten up” [with time] in the bottle.
Penfolds 2015 Bin 95 Grange, South Australia
Also scheduled for release in August, this wine is comparable to the ‘10 Grange in character (Gago is emphatic that “absolutely nothing” has changed with respect to winemaking in the last six years). It shows very peppery dark fruit, with a tight, firm core and almost seamless intensity from start to finish.
Now in its 176th year, Penfolds has learned the hard way that imitation is not the highest form of flattery. Over the last decade, its sought-after wines have increasingly been the target of counterfeiters. Fortunately, efforts to curtail fakes have been successful, and while the Penfolds portfolio has expanded and contracted over the years in response to the market, the impact of Gago’s tenure has undoubtedly helped the company sustain its lengthy track record of success.
As one of the first American wine writers to conduct modern field research in the Utiel-Requena DO, an extreme winegrowing region in central Spain, I found a treasure there that has been hiding in plain sight. Other than having tasted the region’s indigenous grape—Bobal—on rare occasions, I was in the dark about the region’s ancient winegrowing history.
Guided by Nora Favalukus who had visited Utiel-Requena five years earlier, and presented a master class tasting on the region for the Society of Wine Educators, we embarked on a three-day immersion designed to demonstrate the modern range of style afforded by Bobal and the region’s extreme terroir.
Right time for old vines
As the region lies is 45 minutes northwest of Valencia, Utiel-Requena’s primary agricultural crops are oranges and almonds with one wine only recently being recognized as a value-added source of revenue for a winegrowing region that is Spain’s third-largest.
You begin to see vineyards as you approach the city of Requena with the majority of wineries located here while much of the land under vine stretches towards the town of Utiel to the north.
As a late-ripening variety, Bobal is ideally adapted to the region’s extraordinary climate, one that’s distinctly continental but bears a Mediterranean influence most evident in the landscape’s flora, a scrubland known as matorral or tomillares.
Utiel-Requena’s climate is marked by a severe diurnal shift during the hottest summer months when daytime high temperatures can reach 40 C and an increasingly short growing season that is being attributed to climate change.
With its winged, tapered bunches, Bobal is said to be named for a bull’s head. Its berries tend to be uneven in size and it can ripen unevenly not unlike Zinfandel. Unlike Tempranillo, the variety isn’t oxidative and it was historically used to top up Rioja barrels that had lost volume during transport to the port of Valencia.
Where vineyard elevations reach heights of 940 meters in the region’s Campo Robles Alta, both altitude and increased exposure to UV help the late-budding Bobal variety retain high levels of acidity and produce thick skins dense with anthocyanin and tannin.
Winds—some hailing from the Mediterranean that lies to the south and the mountains that protect the region from the heat of La Mancha to the north—result in far healthier vineyards enabling growers to achieve organic certifcation. Many of the vineyards here have been farmed for generations without chemical inputs and producers see the value add of certifying those practices.
Bobal was traditionally vinifed as rustic bulk wine and almost exclusively exported to France. Over the last decade it has undergone a transformation, one that takes full advantage of the grape’s versatility and modern winemaking techniques that respect both its varietal character the region’s terroir.
It thrives in two primary soil types—ferrous red clay with limestone and Albar, chalky and limestone rich, and stony alluvial soils. The former producing richer, fruitier wines and the later wines that are floral and less structured.
With less than 400 mm of rain annually, Utiel-Requena is one of Spain’s driest and coldest DOs. But due to the water-holding capacity of the soils, dry-farmed, head trained or trellised Bobal vines have survived for centuries with the oldest vines at 80 years and the majority of plantings averaging 40years. As such, yields are generally around 1.5 kilograms per vine or one vine per bottle.
“The answer to success with Bobal lies in the old vines,” said Vicente García alongside his daughter Rebecca at Pago de Tharsys. This predominance of old vine material is working in favor of the winemakers who are vinifying the variety across a broad range of styles all of which are successful. Garcia is well known as the father of Bobal-based sparkling from the Utiel Requena DO.
While Bobal isn’t a sugar factory like Garnacha and it’s abundance of anthocyanins often result in darker rosés that perform well on the domestic market, it’s a variety ideally suited to rosé produced by direct press method.
Bobal was first planted at Bodega Sierra Norte in 1914 and according to winemaker Manolo Olmo the winery was among the first in the region to work organically. The winery produces a Bobal rosé from the winery’s Ladera Fuenteseca vineyard at 900 meters, the highest vineyard plots in the Camporobles. This wine is bright and lively with cherries and strawberries, and utterly pleasing.
Grupo Covinas’ tropically-fruited Aula Rosé shows watermelon and banana and is one of anexpansive portfolio of wines produced by the largest co-operative winery in Utiel-Requena.
In contrast, the Veterum-Vitium which means “old vine” in Latin, is an old vine Bobal that spends about six months in oak showing refined black fruit and savory secondary notes of tobacco and spice.
Superb examples of oak-aged Bobal were shown at several wineries. At Dominio de la Vega, a vertical of Paraje 2016, 2014 and 2006 sourced from the stony hills of the La Moella, a vineyard revered by winemaker Daniele Exposito as a very old site for Bobal, showed opaque black wines with mulberry, blackberry and plum evolving with bottle age to smokier, leaner aromas of prune, cedar, umami, earth, thyme and ferrous, licorice notes.
At Marqués del Atrio, a Bobal–dominant blend with Tempranillo from the La Guardia vineyard spends 15 months in new French oak for a savory, sapid wine that over-delivers on its modest price while the 2013 Reserva showed dark spices and meaty, chewy tannins. Older vintages including a 2010 were focused and rich with compelling notes of orange zest.
French and American oak aging of the Ladrón de Lunas Exclusive LDL at Bodegas & Viñedos Ladrón de Lunas results in a wine with exotic spice notes, vanilla and red-fruited Bobal from sixth-generation winemaker Fernando Martinez.
An opulent 2017 barrel-fermented Bobal from Bodegas Vibe winemaker Juan Carlos Garcia showed more apparent blue fruit, graphite, star anise, and mocha as a result of battonage during malolactic conversion in barrel. The winery also works with the native white variety Tardana which has plenty of dry extra, beeswax and pear drop notes.
2014 Clos de San Juan is a richly-developed, old vine Bobal from Bodega Cherubino Valsangiacomo with mulberry, plum, leather, earth, and geosmin. Marta Valsangiacomo, fifth-generation family member led our tour.
Iron Age wineries tamed the wild vine of Utiel-Requena
The presence of Bobal in Utiel-Requena was documented in the 15th century in “Espill o llibre de les dones” by Jaume Roig, but evidence that a thriving wine industry existed in Spain’s Utiel-Requena region as early as the fifth century BCE points to the ancient origins of this thoroughly modern region that’s staking its claim with the indigenous grape – Bobal.
Having walked among the well preserved Iron Age ruins of Las Pilillas de Requena, a massive stone winery carved into a remote hillside 80 kilometers due west from Valencia, it’s thrilling to realize the connection between the region’s ancient winemaking heritage and the indigenous Bobal grape. Las Pilillas dates from the sixth century BCE and is considered the oldest industrial winery in the Iberian Peninsula.
Although we rarely hear of their contributions, the Phoenicians are credited with introducing the tradition of wine consumption to the native pre-Roman inhabitants of the Iberian coast. The amphorae used to transport wine by sea arrived in the region in the seventh century at a time when wine was an exotic and prestigious, imported good very likely used for the worship of Dionysus or Bacchus.
The presence of Phoenician amphorae shards which line the modern-day trail leading to Las Pilillas and other sites also points to early commerce between Phoenician settlements in the south and these ancient wineries. By the sixth century, local wine production was established and Phoenician amphorae were used to store wine. During the fifth century, local amphorae were being produced at pottery kilns or workshops at or nearby the winery sites.
While the Phoenicians brought viticulture and winemaking technology to the native Iberians, DNA evidence suggests[i] that they didn’t introduce cultivated grape varieties but instead relied on local, wild rootstock for their cultivars . The rise in cultivation of indigenous vines which were very likely the precursors of Bobal across the region coincides with the construction of the Phoenician wineries.
So it seems, ancient winemaking flourished in Utiel-Requena as the result of an abundant natural resource and imported technology. In addition to vines, olives which can still be seen growing near the ancient wineries, almonds, figs, and pomegranates were commercial crops in the Iberian economy from about the fifth century onwards.
As many as ten Iron Age wineries some dating to the seventh century have been discovered in the region once known as Kelin, the capital of a 10-hectare site covering much of the sub meseta de Utiel- Requena. The earliest was excavated at Edeta/Tossal de Sant Miquel (Llíria, València) in 1934 and indigenous wine production was finally confirmed in 1989 with the discovery of various presses and associated amphorae and grape seeds at the site of L’Alt de Benimaquia (Dénia, Alacant) dating to the end of the seventh century.
The sites for these wineries were selected along the La Alcantarilla and Los Morenos watercourses (Requena, València), where Las Pilillas de Requena is located. They provided fresh water for irrigation, wine production and possibly a means of transport. The ravines formed by these rivers resulted in a growing region that was warmer and protected from frost creating ideal conditions for ripening grapes.
The wineries themselves were ingenious adaptations of the terroir and the use of gravity. They are sited on the higher slopes of the ravines and comprised of one or two upper terraces that were used for foot crushing of grapes and pressing of the skins.
Small channels fed must into lower basins where it was collected in wells carved directly into the rock. Fermentation occurred either in the basins or in amphorae.
Once finished, the wine was transported to the head water of the ravine in wine skins or amphorae and sold within the region. The floor plans of the wineries and some local houses include storage areas and dedicated cellars for wine amphorae.
These ancient wineries flourished for centuries and the Iberian merchants who controlled wine production which is estimated at about 40,000 liters annually per site were certainly affluent.
Not long after Valencia was founded in 138 BCE by retired Roman soldiers, Romanization ensued and imported wine in Campanian amphorae flooded the Kelin region. During that time, the hillside wineries were abandoned as the Romans absorbed the local industry into their broader production and trade networks.
Today, the curious can walk about one kilometer off the main road to reach Las Pilillas de Requena and explore it unsupervised. The region has applied for Unesco heritage status which would help secure the resources necessary to protect and preserve its fascinating heritage.
Bobal’s characteristics defined
Low in alcohol, generous in tannins and chock full of antioxidants, this perfect combination of characteristics makes Bobal a wine for modern times.
A sensory snapshot of the variety reveals that it has far more complexity than the simple, commercial wines of the past have alluded to. Highly dependent upon the mesoclimate where it’s grown, Bobal shows red fruits like plum, pomegranate, cherry, blueberry, damson plum and darker black fruits like mulberry, blackberry, and black currant.
After Airen and Tempranillo, the indigenous vitis vinifera grape Bobal, from bovale in reference to the shape of a bull’s head, is the third most-planted grape variety in Spain. Grown predominantly in nine towns in the Utiel-Requena DO, Bobal is also farmed in significant quantities in nearby Valencia, Cuenca and Albacete.
Like many of Spain’s treasured high-altitude winegrowing regions, Utiel-Requena, located at 70 kilometres (50 miles) from the Mediterranean coast, sits at an altitude of between 700 and 950 meters (1960 and 2950 ft) above sea level where a mixture of Mediterranean and continental climates result in long, cold winters.
Late frosts in April and May are a hazard for winegrowers here but Bobal is well adapted and protects itself from the frosts by budding late. An extreme diurnal shift, the difference between daytime high and nighttime low temperature variations during the growing season, helps preserve acidity in the grape which benefit from a long growing season and late ripening.
This vigorous variety prefers loose, sandy soils from the region’s alluvial river beds and has to be rigorously pruned to limit canopy and yields for high-quality wine. Typically grown head trained in gobelet (en vaso) and less often on trellises (en espaldera), Bobal is very tolerant of drought and resists both downy and pests including birds possibly due to its low sugar accumulation.
However, it can be susceptible to odium and botrytis and, when grafted to Rupestris root stock, coulure. In the vineyard, Bobal can be recognized by long, loppy shoots, large, juicy blue-black, thick-skinned berries, and light red leaves after harvest.
In the winery, Bobal doesn’t tend towards oxidation but without precaution acidity can be lost during fermentation. Naturally low in alcohol and pH with plenty of natural acidity (5.5 to 6.5 g.l), the wines have remarkably high levels of resveratrol and generous amounts of anthocyanin, polyphenols, and terpenes.
Ranging from dark cherry to deep crimson in color, Bobal has notes of violet, high-toned florals, spices, resinous herbs, and cherry, raspberry and dark fruits. It’s typically medium to full in body with complex layers and high levels of tannins that range in style.
Considered an ideal blending partner with Monastrell, it develops additional complexity and gains in quality from barrel aging. Old vine Bobal wines gain a specific designation in the DO as “Bobal Alta Expression.”
These are mono-varietal wines that may or may not be oak aged produced from dry-farmed vineyards 35 years old or older that are held to lower yields. Rosé wines and all styles of 100% Bobal can be designated “Bobal With Specific Mention” of Utiel-Requena.
There is no better time to gauge the quality and stylistic range of Sauvignon Blanc than during the only international wine competition devoted solely to the variety: the Concours Mondial du Sauvignon, which unfolded in Touraine, France, in early March.
While the lion’s share of the wines hail from France, Austria, and Italy, 21 other countries are also represented at the Concours, making it a one-stop shop for Sauvignon Blanc from lesser-known regions as well as world-famous ones.
For example, California made a strong showing, as did Central and Eastern Europe made a showing with wines from Bulgaria, Croatia, Romania, Slovakia, and Slovenia—a small number of which received awards. All in all, entries from 15 countries merited recognition from myself and 73 fellow jury members.
Successfully identifying the origin of a Sauvignon Blanc requires relying on a full arsenal of sensory information related to aroma, flavor, texture, temperature, structure. The terpenes and thiols that the grape contains as a result of picking decisions and winemaking choices make for very distinct, pronounced aromas. But as Nick Jackson, MW, points out in his recently released reference guide Beyond Flavour: The Indispensable Handbook to Blind Wine Tasting, a blind taster must look beyond the obvious to succeed in making the right call.
Jackson characterizes Sauvignon Blanc by its acidity, describing it as spiky or jagged so as to seemingly prick the inside of the mouth. He makes one exception for high-quality Loire Valley wines, which represented almost 40% of the 1,110 wines that appeared at the Concours. “Top-quality Sancerre and Pouilly-Fumé with limited yields tend to smooth out the rough edges of this rather aggressive acidity and make the wine more mellow,” he writes.
In addressing the wines of the Loire Valley, Bordeaux, New Zealand, Chile, and the U.S., Jackson notes that it’s becoming increasingly difficult to generalize about style; climate change and copycat winemaking are blurring the distinctions of what were once regional benchmarks, forcing bodied like the Institute of Masters of Wine to re-evaluate their blind-tasting exams.
That said, wines from the Loire receive praise for being chalky and flinty, while Bordeaux is described as “becoming a little ‘sweaty’-smelling quite easily.” His characterization of Chilean Sauvignon Blanc was plainly demonstrated in a flight I tasted during the competition: The wines showed hard acids, overt pyrazines, and restrained citrus.
At the top of my own list of Sauvignon Blanc–producing regions, meanwhile, is Südsteiermark, Austria. With luscious ripe fruit, mineral expressiveness, and finesse, its wines are not to be missed.
In northeastern Spain, Garnacha Blanca can predominately be found in the regions of Calatayud, Campo de Borja, Cariñena and Somontano but the Terra Alta PDO has the treasure trove with 1400 hectares of old vine Garnacha Blanca under vine. That amounts to one-third of the vines grown worldwide and growing as new plantings are on the rise.
Throughout these European regions it’s not uncommon to find wines made from extremely low-yielding, sixty-year old vines thriving in what amounts to fossilized sand dunes. Recently designated as the Terra Alta 100% Garnatxa Blanca PDO classification, these wines hold up well to oak aging and deliver orchard fruit, herbs and spices with plenty of texture and creamy mouthfeel.
White and gris Garnacha/Grenache are varieties native to Spain that dwell happily in Roussillon where they are blended to make both dry and sweet wine styles. When designated expressly for the dry wines of PDO Côtes du Roussillon and Collioure, they are picked early to retain aromas and freshness that would otherwise be lost to the sun.
In the dry white wines of Côtes du Roussillon, Grenache Blanc often shares the limelight with Macabeu or Tourbat in a blend where the dominant grape cannot exceed 80%. Grenache Blanc contributes alcohol and plushness to the wines with sweet floral aromas and flavors of white tree fruits like apple and pear, green citrus, stone fruit and dried green herbs. Macabeu contributes acidity and Tourbat which looks quite like Grenache Gris in color offers distinctive smoky and secondary aromas.
In Collioure, Grenache Gris which has been referred to Grenache Blanc’s “pink-skinned cousin” small amounts of mono-varietal wine are produced from old vines that grow on schist soils within sight of the Mediterranean Sea. The resulting wines have volume, good minerality, the coolness of fennel and dryness that doesn’t exceed 4 g/l residual sugar.
The role of these varieties has traditionally been as the star players in the white and ambré vins doux naturel wines of Rivesaltes AOP. Ambré wines mature in open wooden vats for two years and achieve the color of liquid amber with aromas and flavors characterized by roasted nuts, candied citrus zest, raisins and toffee. With an additional three years of aging that often extends to decades, the wines take on Hors d’Age and Rancio designations for their evolved oxidative characters. AOP Maury and tawny-colored Banyuls known as “traditionnels” can also be designated this way.
Geographic Indications (GI), Protected Designation of Origins (PDO) and Protected Geographical Indications (PGI) protect the name of a product, which is from a specific region and follow a particular traditional production process. Product names registered as PDO are those that have the strongest links to the place in which they are made. PGI emphasizes the relationship between the specific geographic region and the name of the product, where a particular quality, reputation or other characteristic is essentially attributable to its geographical origin.